Human upright posture control models based on multisensory inputs; in fast and slow dynamics
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Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. This is an open access article under the CCBY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).Posture control to maintain an upright stance is one of the most important and basic requirements in the daily life of humans. The sensory inputs involved in posture control include visual and vestibular inputs, as well as proprioceptive and tactile somatosensory inputs. These multisensory inputs are integrated to represent the body state (body schema); this is then utilized in the brain to generate the motion. Changes in the multisensory inputs result in postural alterations (fast dynamics), as well as long-term alterations in multisensory integration and posture control itself (slow dynamics). In this review, we discuss the fast and slow dynamics, with a focus on multisensory integration including an introduction of our study to investigate "internal force control" with multisensory integration-evoked posture alteration. We found that the study of the slow dynamics is lagging compared to that of fast dynamics, such that our understanding of long-term alterations is insufficient to reveal the underlying mechanisms and to propose suitable models. Additional studies investigating slow dynamics are required to expand our knowledge of this area, which would support the physical training and rehabilitation of elderly and impaired persons.
- Neuroscience Research
Neuroscience Research (140), 96-104, 2016-03