義和団事件前夜のキリスト教会 [in Japanese] Christianity on the Eve of the Boxer Uprising [in Japanese]
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In the late 1890s, during the period from the first Sino-Japanese War through the German occupation of Jiaozhou Bay to the Boxer uprising, China witnessed rising anti-foreign emotions among the people who sensed the crisis of the partition of China by the European powers and Japan. On the other hand, large numbers of people began to rapidly join Christian churches at the same time. We could say that in the late 1890s there appeared to be two contradictory trends regarding foreign influences occurring among the Chinese people at the same time. The people relied on churches for help amid growing political and social crises that struck throughout China. People relied on other organizations in addition to the churches ; for example, in Shantou they relied on Dafeng-hui against an epidemic of the plague, in Gutian in Fujian province on Vegetarian Sect to treat opium addiction, in Shandong on the Great Sword Society against bandits and in Manchuria on the Zaili sect to put their lives back in order. In the late 1890s the people became actively involved in joining various organizations to defend themselves. When thousands of people band together joining a single organization, the organization can easily change into a pressure group opposing other people, which may then become a cause of social unrest. The Roman Catholic Church in this period offers a typical example of this phenomenon ; just as people banded together to resist bandits or the plague, other people formed particular organizations to fight the Church. Such complexities frequently developed in China during the late 1890s.
東洋史研究 75(2), 414-380, 2016-09