Grape Seed Extract Eliminates Visceral Allodynia and Colonic Hyperpermeability Induced by Repeated Water Avoidance Stress in Rats
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly citedGrape seed extract (GSE) is rich in polyphenols composed mainly of proanthocyanidins, which are known to attenuate proinflammatory cytokine production. Repeated water avoidance stress (WAS) induces visceral allodynia and colonic hyperpermeability via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and proinflammatory cytokine pathways, which is a rat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) model. Thus, we explored the effects of GSE on repeated WAS (1 h for 3 days)-induced visceral allodynia and colonic hyperpermeability in Sprague-Dawley rats. Paracellular permeability, as evaluated by transepithelial electrical resistance and flux of carboxyfluorescein, was analyzed in Caco-2 cell monolayers treated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β. WAS caused visceral allodynia and colonic hyperpermeability, and intragastric administration of GSE (100 mg/kg, once daily for 11 days) inhibited these changes. Furthermore, GSE also suppressed the elevated colonic levels of IL-6, TLR4, and claudin-2 caused by WAS. Paracellular permeability was increased in Caco-2 cell monolayers in the presence of IL-6 and IL-1β, which was inhibited by GSE. Additionally, GSE suppressed the claudin-2 expression elevated by cytokine stimulation. The effects of GSE on visceral changes appear to be evoked by suppressing colonic TLR4-cytokine signaling and maintaining tight junction integrity. GSE may be useful for treating IBS.
Nutrients 11(11), E2646, 2019-11