対話を触発するドキュメンタリー : 60年代学生運動映画の表現様式をめぐって [in Japanese] Documentaries Provoking Dialogue : A Mode of Post War Student Movement Films [in Japanese]
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In Bill Nichols' modal argument on documentary film, a specific manner of expression commonly appearing in Japanese documentaries around the 1960s is defined as the "dialogic mode." It is a mode that intentionally concentrates on the voices and dialogue of citizens. On the basis of this definition, this article explores the following two major questions: 1) how was this mode configured among Japanese documentarists' practices around 1950s and what was its aim? 2) how was the dialogic mode employed in the following student-movement documentaries: Forest of Oppression (Assatsu no mori: Takasaki keizai daigaku Toso no kiroku, 1967), and Japan, Zero Year (Dokyumento kosei: Nippon zero nen, 1969). The first section of this article focuses on the following factors: Iwanami film production's new approach to "targeted objects" after the US occupation period, Iwanami's leading filmmaker Hani Susumu's documentary theory, and the arguments of Yoshida Naoya, the pioneering producer of television documentaries. Emerging from practices at end of 1950s, the dialogic mode did not attempt to simply propagandize the producer's aim nor "targeted people's" protests of social issues. Rather it attempts to display in a straightforward manner people's complex difficulties with those problems and the perplexed filmmaker's "process of thinking" about this complexity in order to confront and reflect on the filmed issue involving various spectators. With a discursive analysis of the two films' manner of expression, the second section argues that the dialogic mode was necessary for the filmmaker to face an isolated student movement within an economically growing society without harming the majority's feelings about enjoying that growth, since it allows him to address the spectator in an ambiguous way which does not simply justify nor deny the student's social protest. According to Sato Tadao, this dialogic expression functioned as a "document for the people's discussion" to organize a democratic society. If so, it would be possible to find a documentary filmmaker's awareness of Japanese post war democracy in the dialogic mode.
- Juncture : 超域的日本文化研究
Juncture : 超域的日本文化研究 (8), 136-149, 2017-03