Effect of Hypoxia on Formation of Three-Dimensional Microvessel Networks by Endothelial Cells in vitro
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Three-dimensional (3-D) control of microvessel formation is critical for regeneration medicine and tissue engineering. Formation and maintenance of organ functions require deep and extensive microvessel networks that can supply O<sub>2</sub> and nutrients to tissue-forming cells. In this study, we examined the effects of hypoxia on 3-D network formation using an <i>in vitro</i> model system in which the effects of hypoxia were isolated from those of other factors affecting network formation, such as growth factors. When we quantified network formation by endothelial cells (ECs) cultured on collagen gel under hypoxic (5% O<sub>2</sub>) and normoxic (21% O<sub>2</sub>) conditions, we found that hypoxia caused ECs to penetrate into the underlying collagen gel and to form 3-D, capillary-like networks. We also examined the detailed 3-D morphology of the networks using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The networks promoted by hypoxia were more extensive and penetrated more deeply into the underlying collagen gel than did those formed under normoxic conditions. Our results demonstrate that hypoxia can induce 3-D network formation by ECs <i>in vitro</i> in the absence of other factors. In examining the mechanism by which hypoxia induces network formation, we found that hypoxia promotes expression of many EC genes, causes EC to secrete network-inducing factors, and increases the sensitivity of ECs to growth factors.
- Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering
Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering 3(2), 299-310, 2008
The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers