アフリカ農村社会の脆弱性分析序説 Introductory Analysis of Social Vulnerability in Rural Africa

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Abstract

脆弱性理論は,脆弱性概念の多義性のために未だ有効な分析概念とは認められていない.しかし,アフリカの貧困問題や農業の持続性の理解のための学際的研究分野においては,大きな可能性を持つと考えられている.本稿では,アフリカ農村社会の分析にとって適切な脆弱性の定義を試み,次に個人,世帯,社会集団という主体の違いによって現れる脆弱性の多様性を整理した.その上で,ナイジェリア,ブルキナ・ファソ,ザンビアで行った農村調査の結果をもとに,個人,世帯,社会集団の脆弱性がどのような過程で増大してきているのか考察した.その結果,個人,世帯,社会集団の脆弱性は,相互に密接な関連を持ち影響しあっていることが明らかとなった.たとえば,ブルキナ・ファソから南部諸国への出稼ぎは,干ばつ常襲地域の世帯の脆弱性を緩和するものであったが,2000年にコート・ジボワールで起きた外国人排斥運動に遭い,突然中止せざるを得なくなった.このことで国外追放された個人,世帯はもとより,彼らが帰った先の故郷の農村社会の脆弱性にも深刻な影響を与えた.このような複雑な脆弱性を理解するためには,主体間の脆弱性増大の影響やそのプロセスを明らかにした上で,次にそれらの間の相互関係を解析する必要がある.

Because of multiplicity of meaning, the vulnerability theory has not been recognized useful in practical analysis. However, it is widely acknowledged that the term vulnerability will have fertile possibility in the areas of interdisciplinary research for poverty issue and agricultural sustainability in Africa. I reviewed some of works on vulnerability to turn up relevant definition of vulnerability in the context of African rural society. Then I tried to interpret the cause and process of increased vulnerability of some farmers seen in the field study in three African countries, Nigeria, Burkina-Faso and Zambia. The findings show that vulnerability of individuals, households and communities is intricately interrelated and interacted. Labor migration from Burkina-Faso to the southern countries, for example, that has helped to mitigate vulnerability of households in drought prone area was abruptly stopped by the expulsion of foreigners from Ivory Coast in 2000 by political reason. This has compelled expelled migrants more vulnerable and also their home society in Burkina-Faso. To understand these complicated vulnerability, it is necessary to scrutinize the different reasons and processes of increased vulnerability by each actor; individual, household, and community. And then, we have to examine their complicated inter-relationship.

Journal

  • E-journal GEO

    E-journal GEO 3(2), 2_1-16, 2009

    The Association of Japanese Geographers

Cited by:  2

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130000254871
  • Text Lang
    UNK
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • Data Source
    CJPref  J-STAGE 
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