モンゴル牧畜システムの特徴と変容 Characteristics and Transformation of Pastoral System in Mongolia

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Abstract

モンゴル牧畜システムは移動性が高いという特徴に加えて,多くのオスを維持し,多種の家畜を多角的に利用するという特徴を有しており,自然環境のみならず,社会環境にも適応的であった.それは単なる生存経済ではなく,軍事産業であり情報産業でもあった.20世紀になると社会主義的近代化のもとで脱軍事化すなわち畜産業化が進行した.市場経済へ移行してからは,牧畜に従事する人々すなわち遊牧民の間で地域格差と世帯格差が拡大している.今日,遊牧民たちは必ずしも自然環境だけではなく,むしろ社会環境に対して積極的に適応して移動している.

Mongolian Pastoral System has high mobility and has two characteristics in husbandry. One is the high ratio of castrated males in the herds and the other is the diverse use of animals. These characteristics are adaptations to the natural and social environments of the Mongolian Plateau. Mongolian nomadic pastoralism is not simply a subsistence economy, rather it is a military economy with information technology. In the 20th century, along with demilitarization associated with socialist modernization, nomadic pastoralism was turned into animal husbandry. Today, as Mongolia undergoes transformation into market economy, regional differences are widening, so are household differences. In this situation, herders still prefer to move in order to get better access to social resources, rather than natural resources.

Journal

  • E-journal GEO

    E-journal GEO 2(1), 34-42, 2007

    The Association of Japanese Geographers

Cited by:  4

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130000255055
  • Text Lang
    UNK
  • Article Type
    Other
  • Data Source
    CJPref  J-STAGE 
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