虚偽自白の心理学とその射程 The psychology of false confessions and its scope

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Abstract

わが国では刑事取調べにおいて無実の人が嘘の自白をする例が少なくない.この虚偽自白の典型例は強制下の迎合によるものである.身柄を拘束された被疑者に対して,取調官が被疑者は犯人に間違いないと確信して取り調べるが,それはしばしば証拠なき確信である.この状況のもとで,被疑者は一般に想像されるよりはるかに強い圧力をこうむる.被疑者は身近な人々から遮断され,生活を警察のコントロール下に置かれ,屈辱的なことばを投げつけられ,弁明しても聞き入れてはもらえない無力感にさいなまれる.しかもこの苦しみがいつまで続くかわからず,見通しを失ってしまう.そこでは有罪となったときに予想される刑罰が自白を押しとどめる歯止めにならない.取調べ下の苦しみはたったいま味わっているものであって,それを将来に予想される刑罰の可能性と比べることはできないからであり,また,無実の人にとっては予想されるはずの刑罰に現実感をもてないからである.虚偽自白の心理は,第三者の視点からではなく,まさに渦中の当事者の視点からしか理解できない.この渦中の視点からの心理学をどのように展開するかは,今後,刑事事件を超えた課題となりうるはずである.

In Japan, there have been many cases in which an innocent suspect falsely confesses to a crime under interrogation. False confessions are most typically coerced-compliant in nature. The interrogators question an innocent suspect and often seek to obtain a confession when, despite the lack of evidence, they are confident that the suspect committed the crime. In such a situation, the innocent suspect is under incredibly strong pressure, having been arrested, separated from familiar people, and held under total police control. During questioning, the suspect is often treated unjustly and with contempt, with interrogators refusing to listen to the suspect's accounts of events. Accordingly, the suspect will feel desperately helpless and can lose their sense of perspective just wanting an end to the suffering under the severe interrogation in custody. It should be noted that the prospect of some future punishment as a consequence of a guilty verdict is not sufficient to prevent false confessions. Under such agonizing circumstances, an innocent suspect will not be able to make rational comparisons between their present suffering and some vague future punishment, and will not perceive the possible punishment as something that can become a reality. Thus, the suspect may finally succumb to the pressure to make a false confession. The psychology of false confessions can only be understood from the perspective of the suspect themselves within the turmoil of the criminal interrogation. This study proposes the notion of “psychology of being in turmoil,” and argues that our task we must be to tackle this.

Journal

  • The Japanese Journal of Cognitive Psychology

    The Japanese Journal of Cognitive Psychology 4(2), 133-139, 2007

    The Japanese Society for Cognitive Psychology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130000428228
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11971335
  • Text Lang
    UNK
  • ISSN
    1348-7264
  • NDL Article ID
    8850433
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZS2(科学技術--心理学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z74-E286
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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