家族構成と子どもの読解力形成:―ひとり親家族の影響に関する日米比較―  [in Japanese] Family Structure and Children’s Reading Literacy::Academic Achievement of Children from Single-Parent Families in Japan and United States  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

日本とアメリカにおいて,ひとり親家族で育つことが子どもの学力形成にあたえている影響を検討する.父不在と母不在とで,子どものリテラシーへの影響の程度と影響が生じる過程が異なりうることをふまえ,2つの仮説を提示する.ひとり親家族は貧困であったり経済的に不安定であったりするため,子どもの学力形成に不利が生じると,第1の仮説は主張する(経済的剥奪仮説).一方,第2の仮説は,ひとり親家族における子どもへの教育的関与の水準の低さが,学力低下の原因になっているという可能性に着目するものである(関係的剥奪仮説).これらの2つの仮説を手がかりに,父/母不在家族のそれぞれを両親のそろった家族と比較したとき,子どもの学力形成に関してどのような不利が見られるのかを分析する.PISA2000のテスト結果から学力の指標を取り出し家族構成との関係を調べたところ,日米に共通の結果として,以下の知見がえられた.(1)子どもの学力は家族の形態で有意に異なり,母不在家族の子どもの学力がとくに低い.(2)家族形態と資源保有との関連については,父不在家族において経済的資源の不足が見られる.母不在家族では経済的資源の不足に加えて,関係的資源の顕著な不足が特徴的である.(3)父不在家族の子どもの学力の低さの背後には,経済的な不利が要因として働いている.(4)母不在家族の子どもの低学力は,家族単位の資源不足の観点からは説明することができない.

     This study examines the effects of single-parenthood on children’s educational achievement in Japan and United States. Given that the absence of the father and the absence of the mother will have different impacts on their children’s education and the intervening processes that produces the educational disadvantages for children from father-absent and mother-absent families will be somewhat different, two hypotheses are proposed. The “economic deprivation hypothesis” argues that children from single-parent families show low academic performances because their families are suffering from poverty or they are economically unstable. On the other hand, the “interpersonal deprivation hypothesis” focuses on the possibility that low level parental educational involvement in single-parent families deteriorates their children’s academic performances. Following from these two hypotheses, we compared children from father-absent and mother-absent families to their counterparts from two-parent families, to understand what kinds of disadvantage there are in growing up with single-parent families. In investigating how family structure relates to children’s achievement using the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 dataset, four main findings were obtained. (1) Children in single-parent families have significantly lower achievement than those in two-parent families, and children from mother-absent families show particularly poor performance. (2) There is shortage of economic resources in father-absent families. In addition to shortage of economic resources, interpersonal resources are significantly insufficient in mother-absent families. (3) Economic disadvantages account for a substantial part of the negative effect of father’s absence on reading literacy. (4) We are unable to explain the disadvantage of mother’s absence on their children’ education in terms of lacking in family resources. These results are almost common to Japan and United States.

Journal

  • Sociological Theory and Methods

    Sociological Theory and Methods 25(2), 249-265, 2010

    Japanese Association For Mathematical Sociology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130000669367
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10096921
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    特集
  • ISSN
    0913-1442
  • NDL Article ID
    10909394
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZE1(社会・労働--社会科学・社会思想・社会学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-2199
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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