『叡知の宝石』(Fusus al-Hikam) にみられるイブン=アラビーの「完全人間」 [in Japanese] Ibn 'Arabi's Use of the Phrase, “The Perfect Man” in the Fusus al-Hikam [in Japanese]
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Although it is widely accepted that Ibn 'Arabi is the first to coin the phrase “the Perfect Man”, (<i>al-insan al-kamil</i>), which gained wide currency in later Sufism, Ibn 'Arabi actually used this phrase infrequently. In his most mature and influential work, the <i>Fusus al-Hikam</i>, the phrase is used only eight times. In five cases out of the eight, the phrase is used interchangeably with Adam, who symbolizes Man. Man, in the metaphysics of Ibn 'Arabi, is defined as the synthesis of all the Divine Names and all the realities of existents (<i>haqa'iq al-mawjudat</i>). Man is the link between God, that is, the Absolute Existence and the Universe. And Man in this metaphysical sense is the Perfect Man, Adam. However, the other three cases suggest that “the Perfect Man” is applied to gnostics (<i>'arifun</i>), i. e., Sufi saints. According to Ibn 'Arabi, gnostics are those who know God in the infinitely different forms in which He manifests Himself. This knowledge can be achieved with the heart, which transforms its shape in accordance with the formal transformation of God. This manifestation of God in different forms is not the manifestation of His Divine Identity (<i>huwiya</i>), that is, His Absolute Existence, but that of His Divine Names, the principle of multiplicity, which is still undifferentiated in God. And the transformation of the heart according to the shapes of manifestation realizes the synthesis of all the Divine Names and all the realities of existents in Man. Thus, the metaphysical, ontological concept of Man, which is symbolized by Adam, the Perfect Man, applies only to Sufi gnostics in the case of real earthly man.
- Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan
Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan 25(1), 73-86, 1982
The Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan