ジャーヒリーヤ時代の暦法:巡礼・交易・神聖月との関わりから The Calendar in the Jahiliya Period:Pilgrimage, Trade, and Sacred Month
In the Jahiliya Period, a pilgrimage festival with an annual market was held at a convenient season of the year. Observing the difference between the lunar and the solar year, they intercalated a month every several years. It has been said that this system was taken from the Jews. The Banu Kinana were charged with <i>Nasi'</i> (intercalation) and adjusted the calendar.<br>Abraha, who invaded Makka in the Year of the Elephant, aimed to divert the Arab pilgrimage to the church he himself had constructed in Yemen. But there were strong protests against his plan, particularly by the Kinanite who controlled the order of the Arab pilgrimage cycle in the Arabian peninsula.<br>According to their calendar, in a normal year, the first two months after Dhu 'l-Hijja were Safar I and Safar II, and in a leap year, the intercalary month, al-Muharram, came first, followed by Safar I and Safar II. Safar I in a normal year and al-Muharram both belonged to the sacred months, so that the safety of the pilgrims moving to another sanctuary was guaranteed. Therefore, in a leap year and a normal year, there were four sacred months.<br>Though this was exceptional, they postponed the sanctity of a month when the markets were invaded, or war broke out between Arab tribes, and so the festival could not be held as normal. Mainly the Kinanite took part in the war of Fijar which occurred near the 'Ukaz market for several years. Therefore, it was likely that the sacred month was postponed exceptionally.
オリエント 41(2), 20-37, 1998