Calpain chronicle—an enzyme family under multidisciplinary characterization

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Author(s)

    • Hata Shoji HATA Shoji
    • Calpain Project, Department of Advanced Science for Biomolecules, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science
    • Ono Yasuko ONO Yasuko
    • Calpain Project, Department of Advanced Science for Biomolecules, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science

Abstract

Calpain is an intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup>-dependent cysteine protease (EC 3.4.22.17; Clan CA, family C02) discovered in 1964. It was also called CANP (Ca<sup>2+</sup>-activated neutral protease) as well as CASF, CDP, KAF, <i>etc.</i> until 1990. Calpains are found in almost all eukaryotes and a few bacteria, but not in archaebacteria. Calpains have a limited proteolytic activity, and function to transform or modulate their substrates’ structures and activities; they are therefore called, “modulator proteases.” In the human genome, 15 genes—<i>CAPN1</i>, <i>CAPN2</i>, <i>etc.—</i>encode a calpain-like protease domain. Their products are calpain homologs with divergent structures and various combinations of functional domains, including Ca<sup>2+</sup>-binding and microtubule-interaction domains. Genetic studies have linked calpain deficiencies to a variety of defects in many different organisms, including lethality, muscular dystrophies, gastropathy, and diabetes. This review of the study of calpains focuses especially on recent findings about their structure–function relationships. These discoveries have been greatly aided by the development of 3D structural studies and genetic models.<BR><BR>(Communicated by Masanori OTSUKA, M.J.A.)

Journal

  • Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B

    Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B 87(6), 287-327, 2011

    The Japan Academy

Cited by:  2

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130000903736
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA00785485
  • Text Lang
    ENG
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    0386-2208
  • NDL Article ID
    11191555
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZS8(科学技術--医学--解剖学・生理学・生化学) // ZR1(科学技術--生物学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z53-T495
  • Data Source
    CJPref  NDL  J-STAGE 
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