質問‐応答関係検査 2 質的分析と会話能力の段階設定  [in Japanese] Characteristics and Stages of Question-Answer Interaction Development in Normal Children.  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

言語発達遅滞児および聴覚障害児の言語発達における会話能力を語用論の観点からとらえるために質問―応答関係検査を作成した.これを健常児に実施して得た発話内容について, 誤答分析を含めて, 言語発達の加齢に伴う質的な変化を分析した.<BR>2歳前半では無反応および現前事象が特徴的であった.2歳後半から3歳では発話量が増えるが冗長であり, 自己経験的・連想的な応答や, 会話が逸れる例が観察された.4歳台では2~3歳に特徴的な誤りは減少し, 系列的説明が可能となり話題が継続した.5~6歳では会話の相手を考慮し要約的に説明することができた.<BR>質問―応答関係を含む会話能力の発達段階を, 1) 2歳前半の無反応 (NR) ・現前事象の段階, 2) 2歳後半~3歳前半の自己経験・連想の段階, 3) 3歳後半~4歳台の意味ネットワークの段階, 4) 5~6歳のメタコミュニケーションの段階, 以上のように設定した.

We constructed a“Test of Question-Answer Interaction Development”and administered it to 165 normal children from 2 to 6 years of age. Qualitative analyses were made of their response utterances.<BR>The children age 2: 0-2: 5 characteristically showed no response or responses determined by nearby situations.<BR>Gradually the amount of utterances increased and responses became redundant in children age 2: 6-3: 5.<BR>The children of this stage often showed typical errors: responses bounded by their narrow experiences, responses influenced by association, and responses outside the topic. 4-year-old children seldom showed errors typical of this earlier age. They were able to keep to a topic and made well-regulated answers. Children age 5-6 considered the listener's knowledge and offered adequate amounts of explanation.<BR>These results suggest that there are four developmental stages of communicative ability focusing on question-answer conversation: (a) 2: 0-2: 5 the stage of no response or responses determined by nearby situations; (b) 2: 6-3: 5: the stage influenced by personal expriences and associations; (c) 3: 6-4: 11: the stage in which the semantic network is built; and (d) 5: 0-6: 11: the stage of meta-communication.

Journal

  • The Japan Journal of Logopedics and Phoniatrics

    The Japan Journal of Logopedics and Phoniatrics 35(4), 349-358, 1994

    The Japan Society of Logopedics and Phoniatrics

Cited by:  1

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130000993652
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    0030-2813
  • Data Source
    CJPref  J-STAGE 
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