チベット地域の乳加工:シャングリラ (香格里拉) 県の事例を通して Dairy Processing in Tibet:A Case Study from Shanggelila County, Yunnan, China
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Pastoralism or stock farming is a livelihood difficult to explore in terms of its past practices and situations since ruins and relics seldom remain due to the rare use of tools and facilities. Therefore, pastoralism in the past has been investigated especially by geographers and anthropologists based on present techniques. They have tended to use a small number of case studies of pastoralism as representative characteristics of an entire area and to discuss the distribution and spread of pastoralism.<br>This study aims to pose questions regarding the conventional methods of investigating the past situation based on present pastoralism techniques, and of establishing, a priori, the cultural geographic spheres based on only a small number of case studies-that is, whether current pastoralism techniques are static and remain unchanged, and whether the conventional categorization of cultural geographic spheres of pastoralism is relevant.<br>A field survey was conducted in the southeastern part of Tibet, Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, for 15 months, from 2000 to 2002, to examine the distribution and transformation of the dairy processing technique, a crucial technique of pastoralism, since it is believed to make this livelihood long-standing and stable.<br>Regarding the dairy processing technique, Tibet is categorized into the Indo-and West Asia cultural geographic sphere, where the churning process is practiced after lactic acid fermentation. On the contrary, in Shanggelila county, where the field survey was intensively conducted, the distinctive feature of milk processing is that the churning process is carried out without lactic acid fermentation. The omission of the fermentation process is found to be practiced all over Tibet. This fact suggests that the milk processing technique that originated in South or West Asia, has been gradually transformed into a process adapted to the cool and arid environment of Tibet. Three milk processing techniques employed in Tibet, which had not been cited in previous works, could be identified.<br>Thus, it is necessary to consider the transformation of techniques while investigating the distribution and spread of pastoralism. Accumulating case studies is also required for a thorough examination. The regional differences among pastoralism techniques need to be closely examined before arriving at an agreement on the a priori categorization of geographic spheres.
- Japanese Journal of Human Geography
Japanese Journal of Human Geography 56(3), 310-325, 2004
The Human Geographical Society of Japan