ヒマラヤ地帯と柑橘の発現 Origin of Citrus fruits with reference to Himalaya region





<i>Citrus ichangensis</i> (成州枳)がAssamに産するというDUTTAの報管によリヒマラヤ地帯は四季橘以外の柑橘属全区の代裏者を網羅することになる。カラタチ(浜州枳)が楊子江岸で完成したのはその原態はともかく東砒マラヤに<i>C. indica</i>の発環した墳と余り大きい隅りはないであろう。後老がAssa, Nepalの間で小紅<sup>*</sup>大紅<sup>*</sup>, Ladu, Klaula, Suntara<sup>*</sup> (椪柑)に進む期間の方が同じ後生綴橘亜属が場子江地帯で僅かに繍 (chü) から蜜橘(紀州)に進んだ期間より長かつたことは閉らかで,最後に金禰を発課する余裕を与えた。鰻初東ヒマラヤに発現した<i>PAPEDA</i>区はマライに至る熱帯で海洋に出る途中にlimeを発現し,雲南を越えて中国に入る途中でザボン<sup>*</sup>,代々<sup>*</sup>・,甘代々<sup>*</sup>,並びに<i>C. Limonia</i><sup>*</sup>を生み,西ヒマラヤに向う途中で小果シトロン (Bajoura), lemon, Galgal, 及びRough lemon (Jambhiri), 甘果ライム (Mita) の両分派を生みながら大果シトロン (Turunj)〓, 無酸大果シトロン (Madhkankur) 〓に発展したことは疑がない。<sup>*</sup>印は東ヒマタヤより中国に伝わり〓印は最も早く欧遡に入リ10世紀に薬効による選択導入により・印がこれを追い,更に15世紀に食用を目途として甘代々が入域した。以上は1928年以来読拠を集積し来つた思索による結論であつて,1931年に証言した東ヒマラヤ柑橘漂生中枢説の基礎を固めるものである。

If the occurrence of <i>Citrus ichangensis</i> (Ch'êng chou chih _??_) in Naga Hills, Assam, is to be justified, the East Himalayan foothill region should in-volve every representative of Citrus subgenera and sections except the monotypic <i>Citrus madurensis</i> (Chin chü _??_) of the section <i>PSEUDOFORTUNELLA</i> of possible garden origin. It's presumable that the origin of the genus <i>Citrus</i> is quite analog-ous to the creation of unifoliolate and solitary-flow-ered <i>Citropsis Tanakae</i> from other pinnate (or tri-foliolate) and paniculate (or racemose) members of the genus in the comparatively cooler region of Africa, and that of northernmost <i>Severinia buxifolia</i> (Kou chü _??_) of similar status from tropical mem-bers of the same genus having distinct inflores-cence. In such circumstances, some agency must have been existed in Eastern Asia several thousand years ago to drop the characters of compound leaf and inflorescence, leaving possible remainder represented by <i>Poncirus trifoliata</i> (Ju chou chih _??_) in the Yangtze valley of interior China. The origin of the subgenus <i>METACITRUS</i>, therefore, must have happened at the stage when paniculate subgenus <i>ARCHICITRUS</i> lost the inflorescence, as in the case of <i>Citrus ichangensis</i> from the section <i>PAPEDA</i>, like <i>Citrus latipes</i>, <i>C. Combara</i> of Eastern Himalaya. From the fact that the <i>PAPEDA</i> group and the section <i>OSMOCITRUS</i> occupy the broadest area of Citrus distribution, a considerable period must have elasped while the genus is represented only by these two sections of plants, undoubtedly giving rise to its start from Assam and its adjacent territory.<br> Although sect. <i>ACRUMEN</i> approaches most to <i>OSMOCITRUS</i> and both territories of Assam and the Yangtze Valley have definite representatives like <i>Citrus indica</i> and Chü _??_ (still unnamed), its repeated sporadic occurrences throughout the Pacifi ter-ritories may prove its very late origin, somewhat earlier than that of the genus <i>Fortunella</i>, without the direct link to <i>OSMOCITRUS</i>. After <i>PAPEDA</i> had become perfectly adapted to the tropical climate, it must have found the way to transform into the Contribution No. 6, from Tanaka Institute of Cit-riculture and Horticultual Science, College of Agriculture. University or Osaka Prefecture lime (sect. <i>LIMONELLUS</i>) and the shaddock (sect. <i>CEPHALOCITRUS</i>) by either thinning or thicken-ing of pericarp and a considerable elongation of pulp vesicles with the change of contents (the loss of acrid oil). This evolution must have occurred during their southward move to the Pacific Ocean from Himalaya, as evidenced by the fact that the former still grows wild in Malay Peninsula and the latter penetrates deep into East Himalayan foothills and interior China, recorded by men at least 2500 years ago.<br> In the next stage, the transformation of <i>LIMONELLUS</i> must have been directed toward the gain of strong citral aroma without the change of rind texture, intensified anthocyanin pigmentation and the fruit elongation, together with the complete loss of petiole wing. This brought out the small citron (<i>Citrus limonimedica</i>) and the lemon (<i>C. Limon</i>), representing sect. <i>CITROPHORUM</i>, and in taking mainly westward advancing route along the Himalaya range, it gave birth to the sweet lime (<i>C. limettioides</i>), Galgal (<i>C. pseudolimon</i>, n. sp.), Galgal Large (<i>C. macrolimon</i>, n. sp.), etc., but it left very important footprint in Assam in the form of closely related <i>Citrus Limonia</i> and <i>C. Jambhiri.</i> Undoubtedly both sour and sweet oranges (sect. <i>AURANTIUM</i>) are the direct descendants of the shaddock, having secure natural habitat in Assam, and posessing stabilized globose fruit with a great advancement of carotenoid pigmentation


  • 園芸學會雜誌

    園芸學會雜誌 28(2), 71-75, 1959

    一般社団法人 園芸学会


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