グリーンランドにおけるEC/EU問題と「自立」志向:1990年代以降の「転換」はなぜ起こったか [in Japanese] Problems of the EC/EU in Greenland and Its Orientation to “Self-decision”:Why Did “Conversion” after the 1990's Happen? [in Japanese]
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Despite opposition in Greenland of joining the EC, this was accomplished with Denmark in January 1, 1973 as Greenland is a province of Denmark. However, Greenland later negotiated “withdrawal, <i>udtræden</i>” from EC because of the unbridgeable gulf between the EC's fishery policy and Greenland's attitude toward fishery. Thus, for Greenland “Self-decision, <i>medbestemmelse</i>/<i>selvbestemmelse</i>” has improved with EC joining. It is connected with the discourse of “Autonomy, <i>Hjemmestyre</i>/<i>Selvstyre</i>” and “Independence, <i>Selvstændighed</i>” after-wards. Greenland consequently decided “withdrawal” advantageous, and this was effected February 1, 1985. This is the first case of “withdrawal” in the history of EC/EU, and it is located as an extremely special issue in a European integration process.<br>Thus, the tendency to exclude the power of influence from EC was seen in Greenland in the 1970's and 80's. However, especially after 1990's, this movement has shifted from “anti-EC/EU” to “pro-EC/EU”. Greenland after the 1990's differs from 1970's and 80's, and Greenland is engaged in positive negotiations with the EC/EU. However, when the status “withdrawal” is maintained, and at the same time “Amiably” relations are built in not only the fishery side but also in wider areas between Greenland and EU, e. g. -Greenland begins to make wider agreements as a more “autonomous actor” though Greenland is still a “province” of Denmark, this reflects a self-denial of “Withdrawal” from EC that stems from the 1970's to 80's.<br>The purpose of this article is in the assumption of “Autonomy” and “Independence” in Greenland, and the basic consideration of relations with EC/EU. This article argues that the case of Greenland illustrates the tendency to exclude the power of influence from EC in the 1970's (EC joining negotiation period of Denmark) and 80's, but since the 1990's a process of “Conversion” has been visible. This article seeks to clarify the areas where this “Conversion” is unfolding.<br>The key to this question is how the discourse of “Autonomy” and “Independence” in Greenland commit to the EC/EU relations in first place. Second, how Greenland and EC/EU provide for each others' interests of merits and demerits. That is, how “Conversion” after 1990's is not only a concern of Greenland for EC/EU, but also the concern of EC/EU for Greenland. Greenland of recent years is a product of the result of intertwining and also parties of EC/EU interests. Therefore, Greenland has constructed “Amiably” relations with EC/EU in different areas. It can be said that Greenland after the 1990's will grope for their own position to the concerns from EC/EU and will parade their own discourse of “Autonomy” and “Independence”.
- The Journal of Island Studies
The Journal of Island Studies 2008(8), 1-24, 2008
The Japan Society of Island Studies