高校生の学校適応と社会文化的背景:──学校の階層多様性に着目して──  [in Japanese] Socio-Cultural Background of Student Adjustment to School:The Effect of Socio-Cultural Diversity and Relative Academic Position in School.  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿は OECD「生徒の学習到達度調査(PISA)」の2003年調査を用いて,日本の高校生の学校適応を検討した。生徒の学校適応の指標として学校帰属意識と遅刻回数を取り上げ,学校レベルおよび生徒レベルの特徴が適応にどのような影響を与えているのかを階層線形モデルにより分析した。主な結果は次の通りである。第1に,出身階層は個人レベル/学校レベルおよび2つの従属変数で若干異なるものの,生徒の学校適応に影響している。第2に,学校ランクによって生徒の意識や行動が異なり,上位ランク校の生徒は帰属意識が強く遅刻回数も少ない。第3に,学校内で学力や教育期待の相対的位置が低ければ,不適応を起こしやすい。第4に,学校内の相対的位置から生じる不満は,ランクや平均的な出身階層が高い学校で生じる傾向が強い。つまり,上位ランク校では学校の位置それ自体による不満は小さいが,学校内の競争的環境により疎外感を強める傾向にある。第5に,学校の出身階層多様性は学校適応に負の影響を与えている。家庭背景を軸に高校生の生活構造や意識,態度に大きな違いが生じ,それに沿ってインフォーマル集団が形成されているとすれば,異なった背景を持つ生徒同士のやり取りは限定され相互不信につながる。以上の結果は,生徒の日常的な不満や疎外感が学校内外の要因によって重層的に構成されており,ここに出身階層が大きく関与していることを示している。

This paper examines Japanese high school studentsʼ adjustment to school using data from the "Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)" conducted by the OECD in 2003. The indicator of student adjustment is composed of their attitudes toward education and behaviors in daily life - the sense of belonging to school and the frequency of late arrival at school. The effects of individual level and school population characteristics on student adjustment are estimated by applying a hierarchical linear model. In particular, this paper focused on the effect of the diversity of student socio-cultural background and relative student academic position within a high school on their adjustment.The main results are follows.<BR><BR>First, student background certainly does affect the extent of adjustment to school, though it differs depending on which indicators and independent variables are used. Generally, students who have a higher socio-economic and cultural background adjust to school better than those who have a lower socio-cultural background. Second, it is confirmed that student attitudes and behaviors differ greatly between schools - many more students from schools with lower academic ranking are likely to be late for school and have a negative sense of belonging to the school. This result is consistent with "the studentsʼ status frustration hypothesis," which postulates that student frustration regarding anticipated educational and status attainment leads to anti-school attitudes and behaviors. Third, studentsʼ relative position of academic achievement and educational expectation within their high school has an effect on the extent of their adjustment to school. Students with relatively higher educational expectation within their high school have a good feeling about their school, and their educational expectations and academic achievement correlate negatively with the number of times the students arrive late for school. Fourth, dissatisfaction derived from their relative academic position is stronger in schools with a higher academic ranking. This suggests that students from schools with an upper academic ranking perceive pressure to achieve and attain higher educational attainments. On the other hand, what frustrates students from a high school with a lower academic ranking is not relative academic achievement within their high school, but the position of their high school in the academic ranking. Fifth, we found that studentsʼ socio-cultural composition has an effect on student adjustment in school - the sociocultural diversity of as chool has a negative effect on the sense of belonging and a positive effect on the number of times students arrive late. This result implies that a schoolʼs socio-cultural composition is important for interaction between students and the formation of informal student groups, which directly affects student adjustment to school. These results indicate that both individual student and school population variables have effects on studentsʼ daily behavior and attitudes toward school.

Journal

  • The Journal of Educational Sociology

    The Journal of Educational Sociology 90(0), 123-144, 2012

    THE JAPAN SOCIETY OF EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130003379346
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN0005780X
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0387-3145
  • NDL Article ID
    023761602
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-188
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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