高校生の学校適応と社会文化的背景:──学校の階層多様性に着目して── [in Japanese] Socio-Cultural Background of Student Adjustment to School:The Effect of Socio-Cultural Diversity and Relative Academic Position in School. [in Japanese]
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This paper examines Japanese high school studentsʼ adjustment to school using data from the "Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)" conducted by the OECD in 2003. The indicator of student adjustment is composed of their attitudes toward education and behaviors in daily life - the sense of belonging to school and the frequency of late arrival at school. The effects of individual level and school population characteristics on student adjustment are estimated by applying a hierarchical linear model. In particular, this paper focused on the effect of the diversity of student socio-cultural background and relative student academic position within a high school on their adjustment.The main results are follows.<BR><BR>First, student background certainly does affect the extent of adjustment to school, though it differs depending on which indicators and independent variables are used. Generally, students who have a higher socio-economic and cultural background adjust to school better than those who have a lower socio-cultural background. Second, it is confirmed that student attitudes and behaviors differ greatly between schools - many more students from schools with lower academic ranking are likely to be late for school and have a negative sense of belonging to the school. This result is consistent with "the studentsʼ status frustration hypothesis," which postulates that student frustration regarding anticipated educational and status attainment leads to anti-school attitudes and behaviors. Third, studentsʼ relative position of academic achievement and educational expectation within their high school has an effect on the extent of their adjustment to school. Students with relatively higher educational expectation within their high school have a good feeling about their school, and their educational expectations and academic achievement correlate negatively with the number of times the students arrive late for school. Fourth, dissatisfaction derived from their relative academic position is stronger in schools with a higher academic ranking. This suggests that students from schools with an upper academic ranking perceive pressure to achieve and attain higher educational attainments. On the other hand, what frustrates students from a high school with a lower academic ranking is not relative academic achievement within their high school, but the position of their high school in the academic ranking. Fifth, we found that studentsʼ socio-cultural composition has an effect on student adjustment in school - the sociocultural diversity of as chool has a negative effect on the sense of belonging and a positive effect on the number of times students arrive late. This result implies that a schoolʼs socio-cultural composition is important for interaction between students and the formation of informal student groups, which directly affects student adjustment to school. These results indicate that both individual student and school population variables have effects on studentsʼ daily behavior and attitudes toward school.
- The Journal of Educational Sociology
The Journal of Educational Sociology 90(0), 123-144, 2012
THE JAPAN SOCIETY OF EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY