Therapeutic Potential of Vasopressin-Receptor Antagonists in Heart Failure
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Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a 9-amino acid peptide that is secreted from the posterior pituitary in response to high plasma osmolality and hypotension. AVP has important roles in circulatory and water homoeostasis, which are mediated by oxytocin receptors and by AVP receptor subtypes: V<sub>1a</sub> (mainly vascular), V<sub>1b</sub> (pituitary), and V<sub>2</sub> (renal). Vaptans are orally and intravenously active nonpeptide vasopressin-receptor antagonists. Recently, subtype-selective nonpeptide vasopressin-receptor agonists have been developed. A selective V<sub>1a</sub>-receptor antagonist, relcovaptan, has shown initial positive results in the treatment of Raynaud's disease, dysmenorrhea, and tocolysis. A selective V<sub>1b</sub>-receptor antagonist, nelivaptan, has beneficial effects in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Selective V<sub>2</sub>-receptor antagonists including mozavaptan, lixivaptan, satavaptan, and tolvaptan induce highly hypotonic diuresis without substantially affecting the excretion of electrolytes. A nonselective V<sub>1a</sub>/V<sub>2</sub>-receptor antagonist, conivaptan, is used in the treatment for euvolaemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia. Recent basic and clinical studies have shown that AVP-receptor antagonists, especially V<sub>2</sub>-receptor antagonists, may have therapeutic potential for heart failure. This review presents current information about AVP and its antagonists.
- Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 124(1), 1-6, 2014
The Japanese Pharmacological Society