福島原発事故後の放射能影響を受ける野生哺乳類のモニタリングと管理問題に対する提言  [in Japanese] Some proposals for the monitoring and management of wild mammals affected by radioactivity after the nuclear accident in Fukushima  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 山田 文雄 Yamada Fumio
    • 日本哺乳類学会哺乳類保護管理専門委員会|森林総合研究所 Committee of Conservation and Management of the Mammal Society of Japan|Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI)
    • 竹ノ下 祐二 Takenoshita Yuji
    • 日本霊長類学会保全・福祉委員会|中部学院大学 Committee of Welfare and Conservation of the Primate Society of Japan|Chubu Gakuin University
    • 河村 正二 Kawamura Shoji
    • 日本霊長類学会保全・福祉委員会|東京大学大学院新領域創成科学研究科 Committee of Welfare and Conservation of the Primate Society of Japan|Graduate School of Frontier Science, The University of Tokyo
    • 大井 徹 Oi Toru
    • 日本哺乳類学会哺乳類保護管理専門委員会|日本霊長類学会保全・福祉委員会|森林総合研究所|東京大学大学院農学生命科学研究科 Committee of Conservation and Management of the Mammal Society of Japan|Committee of Welfare and Conservation of the Primate Society of Japan|Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI)|Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo

Abstract

東日本大震災が起きて約2年半が経過し,福島原発事故で放出された放射性物質による野生動物への蓄積と影響についての調査研究が取り組まれつつあるが,全体的な実態や野生動物の管理について,人間活動の制限もあり不十分な点が多い.このため本稿では,野生哺乳類のモニタリングや管理問題について,特にニホンザル<i>Macaca fuscata</i>(以下サルとする)や大型狩猟動物を対象に最近の知見を報告し,今後のあり方について総合的な視点から検討を加え,いくつかの提言をまとめた.福島県の高線量地域(避難区域の南相馬市など)における放射能汚染によるサルの餌への影響,耕作状況の変化によるサルの行動変化,および捕獲サルからの極めて高い数値の放射性セシウムの体内蓄積量が報告された.さらに,中線量地域(避難区域外の福島市)で捕獲されたサルの放射性セシウムの体内蓄積量を事故直後から最近まで継続的にモニタリングしたところ,特に事故当年に極めて高い値を示し,白血球の減少など健康への影響も認められた.大型狩猟獣では,高中線量地域の福島県内や低線量地域の周辺の県においても,食品の規制値(100 Bq/kg,2012年の新基準値)を超える個体が存在した.さらに,高線量地帯の避難区域では人の立ち入りが禁止されているため,野生動物の管理が困難となり,野生動物の個体数増加や行動圏の変化が起きていることや,さらに低線量地域においても,狩猟の低下による野生動物の個体数増加による人間との軋轢の問題が起きており,今後の対応が求められている.放射性物質は2012年の「改正環境基本法」で公害物質と同様の扱いとなったが,環境省の環境影響評価の標準動植物(26種)として哺乳類からは齧歯類Rodentiaだけが指定されており,またモニタリング対象区域としても避難区域(20 km圏内)が主とされている.本報告の提言として,対象種にニホンザルや大型狩猟獣なども加え,また避難区域以外の地域での計画的で統一された手法によるモニタリングを行い,野生動物の管理対策や放射能影響による野生動物の保全管理対策を行うことが必要である.また,共同研究や情報の共有化,調査方法や影響評価方法の標準化,地元との情報交換や共有化,さらに成果情報の国内外への迅速な公開が必要と考える.<br>

About two and a half years have passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11 2011. Some research on the accumulation and effects of radionuclide in wild animals released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant has been progressing since then, but the actual condition and management of wildlife on the whole are inadequate in many cases mainly because of strongly limited human activity especially in the evacuation area. Some changes in behavior have been recognized in Japanese macaques <i>Macaca fuscata</i> as probably due to changes in farming conditions and the associated impact on food due to radioactive contamination in the high-dose area, in the evacuation area in Fukushima Prefecture. And concentrations of radiocesium in two macaques captured in the high-dose area were very high. On the other hand, macaques captured in a middle-dose area, Fukushima City, showed very high values especially in the accident year, and a decline of white blood cells was also observed. In large hunting animals, even in the low-dose area of Fukushima Prefecture and other peripheral prefectures, individuals that have more than the regulation value in food (100 Bq/kg) were present. In addition, because of high dosage in the evacuation area, the management of wild animals has been become difficult, and changes in home range and population increase of wildlife species have been documented there as well as in the low-dose area. Conflict with humans due to population increase via decreased hunting activity has occurred. Recently, the legal treatment of radionuclides in the environment has changed to as the same status as pollutants under the new “Revised Basic Environment Law” since 2012. However, only rodents were selected from mammal species as the 26 species of the standard flora and fauna for environmental impact assessment by the Ministry of the Environment. And the monitoring area is within a 20 km distance of the Nuclear Plant. Therefore, we propose here that macaques and large-sized hunting mammals, such as boar <i>Sus scrofa</i> and sika deer <i>Cervus nippon</i>, should be added to monitored species in the standard flora and fauna for environmental impact assessment. A monitoring method should be applied that is unified and intentional not only in the evacuation area but also in the low-dose area. Standardization and sharing of assessment methods and evaluation methods of radionuclide activity effect should be attempted. Conservation and management measures of wild mammals, the sharing of information among local, and rapid release of outcome information to domestic and international are required.<br>

Journal

  • Honyurui Kagaku (Mammalian Science)

    Honyurui Kagaku (Mammalian Science) 53(2), 373-386, 2013

    The Mammal Society of Japan

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