チアミン(ビタミンB1)欠乏による神経組織障害  [in Japanese] Thiamine, its role in the nervous system, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome  [in Japanese]

Access this Article

Abstract

チアミン(ビタミンB1)はエネルギー代謝に不可欠の補酵素であり,その欠乏は神経系に特有の障害を引き起こす。ヒトでは2種類のチアミン欠乏症,脚気とWernicke-Korsakoff症候群(WKS)がみられるが,脚気では主に末梢神経系が障害される一方,WKSでは中枢神経系が障害される。なぜ単一のビタミンが異なる2種類の病態を引き起こすのかよくわかっていない。WKSの神経組織障害は,多くの神経変性疾患同様に脳の特定領域にみられ,その発症機構に興味が持たれてきた。WKSに類似した病態を示す疾患モデル動物の研究により,WKSの発症には興奮性神経毒性や酸化ストレスなどの要因が関与することが明らかになりつつあるが,領域特異的な障害がどのようにして起こるのかほとんどわかっていない。著者らはWKSモデルマウスの脳における細胞死の分布を検討したところ,嗅球で大量の細胞死が生じていることを見いだした。嗅球における細胞死の分布から,シナプス入力の違いがチアミン欠乏に対する感受性に影響を与えていることが示唆された。

Thiamine (thiamin, vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient for animals. Thiamine is incorporated into cells and is then rapidly converted to thiamine pyrophosphate that works as a coenzyme in several enzymes in glucose and amino acid metabolism. It is known that thiamine deficiency leads to neuronal dysfunction of the peripheral nervous system (beriberi) and focal lesions in particular brain regions (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, WKS). Especially, pathogenesis of WKS has attracted considerable attention because of the region-specific vulnerability, which is also observed in neurodegenerative diseases. Several underlying mechanisms (excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, disruption of blood brain barrier, endoplasmic reticulum stress, astroglial dysfunction) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of WKS by using rodent models of thiamine deficiency. However, the precise mechanisms causing selective topographic vulnerability in the brains of WKS and the rodent model still remain unclear. In this review, I provide an update on function of thiamine, and describe about thiamine deficiency syndromes, especially WKS. Furthermore, I discuss possible mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of focal brain lesions in experimental thiamine deficiency based on the data available in the literature and from our laboratory.

Journal

  • Hikaku seiri seikagaku(Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry)

    Hikaku seiri seikagaku(Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry) 31(1), 13-19, 2014

    THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130003394319
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10391932
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0916-3786
  • NDL Article ID
    025355847
  • NDL Call No.
    Z18-1651
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
Page Top