社会的公正性を支える不公平の承認:―不法占拠と3.11大震災における「剥き出しの生」をめぐって―  [in Japanese] Logic of Social Justice:"Validated law" in Everyday Practice: A Case Study of Illegal Occupation and 3.11 Earthquake  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

 本稿では,現代社会における「公正さ」について,単に近代国家の法律制度の枠組みへの位置付けだけでは公正性を保証できていないことを指摘したい.そのうえで,周りから不公平ともいえるものが実は逆に現代社会の公正性を担保することにつながっているという社会的事実を提示する.<br> 拙著『生きられた法の社会学』において大阪国際空港(伊丹空港)の一角に形成された「不法占拠」地域について,その歴史的な形成プロセスと人々の生活の内実,そして,住民と伊丹市と国との交渉をとおして「不法占拠」が解消されていく経過を描き出した.そこで見出したものは,「剥き出しの生」を背負わされた人々の実践が実定法に包摂されない「生きられた法」を生成するとする「法外生成論」だった.法外におかれた人々の「エゴイズム」を排除するのではなく,人々の生活実践にこそ法の正統性の源泉があるとする主張は,グローバル化のもと,国家や市場から排除された人々が数多く生み出されている現在示唆的であると考えた.<br> ただし,当初地震などの震災は,「生きられた法」からは除外していた.おもに阪神・淡路大震災を引き合いに出しながら,絶望的な極限状態の際に生じた公共性は,時間をおかず解消され,いずれ元の日常生活に戻っていく定点をもつという判断からであった.ところが3.11大震災において,「修正」を迫られる事態が発生した.むしろ「生きられた法」のなかに今回の大震災を含む方がしっくりくる.

Should squatting, which is a worldwide phenomenon, be treated as an extralegal concept positioned outside the framework of national law, or should it be incorporated within legal frameworks? Squats are normally regarded as areas in which national law does not apply, and as such, the civil authorities of nations that do not address squatting in their legal systems either turn a blind eye to it or resort to eviction. This report, however, concerns itself with one of the biggest cases of illegal occupation in Japan, and how the authorities sought to resolve the issue amicably through public compensation conforming to the nationʼs legal system. In this respect, illegal occupation could be seen as having been incorporated within the nationʼs legal system.<br>The squatters concerned in this case were forced to live life in the raw, alienated from the privileges that normally attach to individuals, such as good environment (the site suffered jet noise pollution), status as nationals (the squatters were Korean), and property under the law. Public compensation for the illegally occupied land rather pointed to opportunities in the system for remediation in the process of personification.<br>More specifically, I attempt to show how it was in the context of personification of (1) airport facilities at the public administration level and (2) roadside deities at the private sector level that compensation for the people living on the illegally occupied site was arranged and illegal occupation resolved.<br>The purpose of this report is to provide social policy pointers to halting and reversing the localized proliferation of poverty.<br>In addition, this paper applies theory of "Validated law" in everyday practice to a 9.0 earthquake struck northern Japan this March 11. By the big tsunami, smaller-scale fishermen and older couldnʼt recover even with government help. Miyagi governor, as a partial solution, proposed opening coastal waters to big-business investors. Coastal fishing rights always belong to Fisheries Cooperative Agencies.<br>However, the fishing cooperative agencies will help themselves with their original ways-kyogyo-ka (cooperation with their memberships).

Journal

  • The Annual Reports of the Tohoku Sociological Society

    The Annual Reports of the Tohoku Sociological Society 41(0), 23-33, 2012

    The Tohoku Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130003399207
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0287-3133
  • Data Source
    J-STAGE 
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