中世近江における寺院集落の諸様相  [in Japanese] Some Aspects of the Temple Settlements in Medieval Omi  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

近年,都市史研究の分野では,前近代における日本都市の固有な類型として,古代都城(宮都)と近世城下町が抽出され,これらを現代都市と対峙させ「伝統都市」と位置づけることによって,新たな都市史の再検討がはじまりつつある。本稿では,こうした方法を念頭に置きながらも,都城にも城下町にも包摂されない日本固有の都市類型として,中世の「宗教都市」を具体的な発掘調査事例に基づいて分析しようというものである。そして近江における「湖東型」中世寺院集落=「宗教都市」を,戦国期城下町・織豊系城下町などとならんで近世城下町へと融合・展開する中世都市の一類型として位置づける必要性を主張するものである。<BR>特に,「都市考古学」という立場に立ち集落の都市性を見ていくという観点から,V.G・チャイルドの10個の都市の定義の要素のうち,3つの要素(人口の集中,役人・工匠など非食料生産者の存在,記念物・公共施設の存在=直線道路)に着目して中世近江の寺院集落の分析をした。その結果,山の山腹から直線道路を計画的に配置し,両側に削平段を連続して形成する一群の特徴ある集落を抽出することができた。これを,「湖東型」中世寺院集落と呼称し,「宗教都市」と捉えた。滋賀県敏満寺遺跡の発掘調査成果を中心に,山岳信仰および寺院とその周辺の集落から展開する様相を4っの段階で捉えた。また,その段階の方向性は直線道路の設定という例外はあるものの,筆者が以前提示した三方向性モデルのうちII-a類に属すると位置づけた。<BR>そして,特に4つの段階のうちIII期を「湖東型」中世寺院集落の典型の時期と捉え,その形成と展開および他地域への伝播を検討してその歴史的意義を検討した。その結果,この都市計画の技術や思想が,北陸の寺内町や近江の中世城郭やさらには安土城に採用された可能性を指摘した。その成立時期については,佐々木六角氏の観音寺城や京極氏の上平寺城の事例を見ると,武家権力が山上の聖なる地を勢力下において「山上御殿」が成立してくる時期とほぼ一致すると考えた。<BR>日本都市史においては,中世都市のひとつの類型として,「宗教都市」を挙げることができるが,特に「湖東型」中世寺院集落は,個性ある「宗教都市」の一つとして重要な位置を占める。それは,戦国期城郭へ影響を与えたのみならず近世城下町へ連続する安土城の城郭配置や寺内町吉崎の都市プランに強い影響を与えたことが想定できるからである。

In recent years, within the field of urban history a reevaluation of the history of the city in Japan has begun. This reevaluation has proposed that the ancient capitals (palaces) and early modern castle towns should be seen as "traditional cities" in contrast to modern urban centers. Against this background, this paper uses results from actual archaeological excavations to analyze an urban form peculiar to Japan that cannot be classified as a capital or a castle town: the medieval "religious city". It is argued that the "religious cities" or "Koto type" medieval temple settlements of Omi district should be seen as a type of medieval city that, together with the Sengoku (Warring States) and Nobunaga-Hideyoshi type castle towns, fused and evolved into the early modern castle town of the Tokugawa period.<BR>Using the perspective of "urban archaeology", the temple settlements of medieval Omi are analyzed using three of the ten characteristics of cities proposed by V.G. Childe: (1) a concentrated population, (2) the presence of craftsmen and other specialists who do not directly produce food, and (4) the presence of monuments or public facilities-in this case straight roads. As a result, it was possible to identify a type of settlement with a group of defining features including planned, straight roads built down from the mountainside with artificial terraces on both sides. These settlements were called"Koto type" medieval temple settlements and were interpreted as "religious cities". Based primarily on the results of excavations at the Binmanji site in Shiga Prefecture, four developmental stages were identified using changes in mountain beliefs and temples and their surrounding settlements. The establishment of straight roads corresponds to the type II-a of the three directional model previously proposed by the author.<BR>Of the four stages, stage III is argued to be that of the typical "Koto type" medieval temple settlement. In order to examine the historical significance of these settlements, this paper looks at their formation, development, and spread to other regions. As a result, it is proposed that the technology and philosophy behind these urban settlements may have been used in the temple compound towns of the Hokuriku, the medieval castles of Omi, and even at Ando castle. From the examples of Sasaki Rokkaku's Kannonji castle and Kyogoku's Joheiji castle, it can be suggested that these settlements were established at almost the same time as the warrior class began building mountainside sacred precincts known as "Sanjo Goten".<BR>This paper proposes the "religious city" as one type of medieval town in Japanese urban history. The "Koto type" medieval temple settlement is of particular importance as one distinctive "religious city" because it can be hypothesized that these settlements had a strong influence on the urban plans of not just the castles of the Warring States era, but also the defensive layout of Ando castle and the urban plan of the Yoshizaki temple compound town, both of which were connected to the later castle towns of the early modern period.

Journal

  • Nihon Kokogaku(Journal of the Japanese Archaeological Association)

    Nihon Kokogaku(Journal of the Japanese Archaeological Association) 12(19), 51-72, 2005

    THE JAPANESE ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130003637122
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10461357
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1340-8488
  • NDL Article ID
    7743739
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-B286
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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