タイにおける1688年の"Révolution":アユタヤ王朝の対仏関係についての一考察 The “Révolution” of 1688 in Thailand

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Abstract

The relation between Thailand and France in the 17th century reached its peak in September 1687, when the French squadron of six warships arrived in the Gulf of Siam to station troops in Bangkok. But early in 1688 King Narai, who had sought alliance with France became he had been threatened by Dutch commercial interests, became seriously ill. Many Siamese officials took part in the conspiracy of Phra Phetracha, who attempted to seize power. They accused Constance Phaulkon, a Greek favorite of King Narai, who was in close relationship with the French Jesuits.<br>At that time, there were four French groups in Siam. Besides the troops commanded by Marshall Desfarges and the Jesuits, there resided the French missionaries of the Society of Foreign Missions and the servants of the French East India Company. There were as many French interests in Siam as the number of these French groups.<br>Faced with the newly developed situation, the French could not agree as to what kind of measures they should take. But we can say that the French as a whole took moves with the troops being the main motivating force. French officers and soldiers were all frightened at the unexpected disorder in Siam. They decided not to consent to the new authority, Phra Phetracha. Their fight at Bangkok Fort, often called the victorious defense, was, however, a desperate one. After the fight which took less than 20 days, the French garrison asked for withdrawal from Siam. The Siamese allowed their withdrawal and generously offered food and ships for carrying the troops by an agreement made both by the Siamese and the French. But the French broke the agreement, which caused the French missionaries left in Siam to endure hardships later on.<br>The incidents in 1688 are well known as the Revolution in Siam from many European accounts. Although the Europeans consider it as a revolution, it was not a revolution for the Siamese, for there was no change in the Siamese attitude toward the Europeans. The Siamese considered French friendship as the means of accumulating its wealth. For them, the French East India Company was the most important source in maintaining their relationship with France. During the fight at the French garrison in Bangkok, the Siamese kept friendly terms with the Company's agents and their hope to trade with the French did not cease after the revolution.<br>The aim of the French to have relationship with Siam was not exclusively commercial but also political and religious. In contrast with this multifarious, or rather confused interests of the French, it is clear that the Siamese concentrated their interests on the commercial aspects. In the negotiations with the French, the king himself as well as his officials showed their ability as capable merchants. The process of Phetracha's accession to the throne indicates other interesting features of the 17th-century Siamese state and its kingship.

Journal

  • Southeast Asia: History and Culture

    Southeast Asia: History and Culture 1975(5), 54-94, 1975

    Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies

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