博覧会の舞踊にみる近代日本の植民地主義:琉球・台湾に焦点をあてて Cultural colonialism in Japanese Expositions:Influences on the Okinawan and Taiwanese dances

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本論文は、国家イベントとして近代盛んに行われた博覧会における音楽を、日本の植民地主義という視点から考察することを目的としたものである。西洋とは異なる状況下で進められた日本の植民地主義とその文化的影響について考察する上では、西洋/非西洋=支配/被支配という構図から離れ、個々の事例から植民地政策による波紋や同時代の社会的思潮を汲み取ることが特に必要である。そのような問題意識を踏まえ、本稿では明治三六年の内国勧業博覧会における琉球手踊および昭和一〇年の台湾博覧会における高砂族舞踊という二つの対象について考察した。<br>「見世物」として諸民族の生活が展示された内国勧業博覧会の学術人類館では、地域特有の風俗を、「普通」という基準を作る内地の人々の前で披露するのは「恥ずべきこと」という発想が、琉球に顕著に生まれていたことを確認した。主催側の内地から見れば「他者」の「展示」になるが、「展示」される側から見ると、同じ「自己」であると教育されてきた内地に「他者」としてラベリングされたことを意味する。これによって、内地から見た植民地像と植民地の側の自己イメージとの間にずれが生じ、植民地は「不当」なイメージに対峙すると同時に、自己の再認識を迫られたと指摘できる。他方で、台湾博覧会における高砂族舞踊のような伝統的な演目は、支配層によって娯楽として消費されていたが、その一方で高砂族舞踊の出演者が支配層の前での上演に対して拒絶反応をあらわにせず、少なくとも表向きは肯定的な反応を示していたことも確認できた。<br>日本の植民地主義という文脈から文化イデオロギーについてアプローチする際には、「同化」のみならず「異化」が持つ暴力性もまた軽視せざる問題であり、エキゾチシズムをもって植民地の舞踊を眼差すことへの内地人の欲求が「異化」を生み出したと言える。政策レベル/精神レベルで行われた「同化」と「異化」との間の歪みが、植民地時代に披露された芸能にも顕著に見られることを本論文では実証した。

In this paper, I examine how the dances in modern Expositions can be analyzed from a perspective of colonialism. I will focus on two specific examples of <i>Ryukyu-teodori</i> and <i>Takasagozoku-buyo</i>. By doing so, I make the relationship between Japanese colonialism and performing arts clear.<br>The modern era has been known as “the era of Expositions”. In 1851, the first World Exposition was held in London, and then expositions took place continuously in larger Western cities such as Paris and Vienna in Europe, Philadelphia and Chicago in the United States. Each country competed to set up colonial pavilions in Expositions. To place colonial things on exhibition was to show the nations' capability for foreign influence. Therefore, the expositions might be the best opportunity for effective propaganda in presenting a country's growing national power to the global community.<br>The representation of colonies has its roots in earlier ages. From the 18<sup>th</sup> to the 19<sup>th</sup> centuries, Western powers have made wide inroads into non-Western countries. At that time, the study of natural history was prevalent in Europe, and European scholars were strongly interested in the people of non-Western cultures. And the same features also appeared in Japanese modern expositions, since both Japan and Western countries shared the same characteristics as settlers, despite the geopolitical differences.<br>In 1900, the 5<sup>th</sup> National Industrial Exhibition was held in Osaka. The Academic Anthropic Pavilion (<i>Gakujyutsu jinrui-kan</i>) exhibited examples of colonial populations gathered from Okinawa, Hokkaido, and Taiwan, as a kind of “freak show”. This action caused a huge uproar in some regions, because people in those areas thought that it was degrading to have shown some region-specific (in other words, “abnormal”) folklores to the colonizing culture which decided the standard of “normal” during the era of colonial rule. This idea was especially strong in Okinawa, and the fact that several women of Okinawa gave a public performance of the traditional dance (<i>Ryukyu-teodori</i>) in this pavilion came under severe criticism in the Okinawan media, particularly among intellectuals. Such arguments are clearly related to Japanese Okinawan policies based on the idea of assimilation, which requires Okinawa to become a part of Japanese culture, even while severe discrimination remained. The people in Okinawa were educating themselves as “Japanese citizens” in these days. The colonists forced the people in Okinawa to make an effort to become “Japanese” like the immigrant settlers. In spite of this, people from Okinawa were exhibited in a showcase with Ainu or Taiwanese, who were retarded as “inferior breeds” by them.<br>However, another performance by Okinawan people was widely and favorably accepted, though it was at the same Exposition and was the same kind of traditional dance as was displayed at the Academic Anthropic Pavilion. That was the dance revue by “beautiful Okinawan women” (<i>Ryukyu-bijin teodori-kai</i>). This shows that not content, but context of performance is at stake. It is interesting from the perspective of colonialism and gendered body, since there were accusations that the women who appeared in the Academic Anthropic Pavilion were “prostitutes”, while women who performed in the Okinawan dance revue were praised as “actresses”.<br>Meanwhile, there was a completely different phenomenon in Taiwan, another colony of Japan. The Takasago, a Taiwanese indigenous tribe who performed at the Taiwanese Exposition in 1935 responded in another way. The colonizers viewed the traditional performance like Takasago-dance as a peculiar but interesting entertainment in this Exposition. Yet, even though they were treated as a “freak show”, the Takasago performers who appeared on the stage h

Journal

  • Toyo ongaku kenkyu : the journal of the Society for the Research of Asiatic Music

    Toyo ongaku kenkyu : the journal of the Society for the Research of Asiatic Music 2008(73), 21-40, 2008

    The Society for Research in Asiatic Music (Toyo Ongaku Gakkai, TOG)

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