加齢に伴う水晶体黄変化による日常生活への影響 [in Japanese] Affects of age-related yellowing crystalline lenses on daily life. [in Japanese]
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市販の色セロファンを使った75歳相当の透過率をもつ眼鏡を用いて, 高齢化に伴う眼の水晶体の黄変化を模擬体験し, 高齢者の視界が日常生活にどのような影響を及ぼしうるかを調査した. 食事の場面・買い物・道路で調査した結果, (1) 色が変わってみえるだけでなく, (2) 色による区別がつきにくくなる, (3) 液体など不定形のものが知覚しにくい, (4) 立体感や奥行き感が減少する, (5) 光るものがみづらい, ことがわかつた. 具体的には, 食品の鮮度を誤認したり飲み物の種類や量がわかりにくい, 商品の区別が困難, 段差への対処が遅れるなどの生活上の困難があげられた. 色紙を用いた実際の高齢者による色の同異判断実験では, 黄と白, 青と緑, 濃青と黒, 紫と濃赤という, シミュレーションで誤認しそうな色の組み合わせに対して同じように誤認する高齢者がいることが確認され, ヒアリングでもシミュレーションであげられた困難に関連する事柄があげられた.
Yellowish view of elderly people is simulated by using colored cellophane, whose transmission is equivalent to crystalline lens of a person around 75 years old. Subjects had meals at their home, went shopping and walked in the town with wearing yellow cellophane on their eyes, and investigated the influences on their daily life. It is found (1) changed colors' appearance, (2) difficulty in discrimination of colors, (3) difficulty in handling things without solid shapes (e. g. liquid), (4) failing of depth perception, and (5) difficulty in reading back-lighted signs. Concretely, difficulties in daily life are such that misjudge in freshness of foods and quantity of drinks, mistakes in goods selection at shops, and slow at meeting bumps on roads. An experiment was carried out on judgement of colors (same/different) by elderly men who were 80 to 86 of age. It is found as a result that elderly people tend to misjudge the colors mistaken in the simulation: yellow and white, blue and green, dark blue and black, and purple and dark red. In the interview, the elderly mentioned the difficulties in their daily lives due to their misjudgment of colors that was suggested in our simulation.
- The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics
The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics 34(1), 9-16, 1998
Japan Ergonomics Society