拡大EUの中のロシア:カリーニングラード問題 A Russian region within the Enlarged EU:The Kaliningrad problems
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The Kaliningrad problems are the test of Europe after enlargement of the EU. The EU is confronted with the question how to realize the Eastward enlargement without creating a new dividing line between the enlarged EU and Russia. On one hand, it requests future Member States to tighten the control of their borders with external areas. On the other hand, it seeks for closer cooperation with Russia.<br>Accession negotiations have been separated from external affairs over the years. Kaliningrad, —a Russian <i>exclave</i>—has been treated as if another mere Russian border. But the daily life of the people there depends on Visa-free transit between its borders of Poland and Lithuania, based on a historical heritage of the past Communist bloc. With the failure of the Special Economic Zone due to conflicts between Moscow and Kaliningrad, it brings about <i>soft</i> security problems (shadow economy, illegal activities, and pollutions), which pose a threat to the security of the whole Europe.<br>Kaliningrad, which is located on the Baltic Sea between Poland and Lithuania, will become a Russian <i>enclave</i> within the enlarged EU and find itself enclosed by Schengen borders causing access problems for outsiders. It might broaden the socio-economic gap between the EU and this region, and make Russia isolated. Eventually, it would threaten the sustainability of the region.<br>Therefore, the prospect for getting rid of the gap is vital to solve the Kaliningrad problems. In other words, the future development of Kaliningrad is closely linked to building the <i>Wider Europe</i>, including the <i>Common European Economic Space</i> between the EU and Russia. Recently Russian government is making the development plan based on the national strategy to change Kaliningrad <i>from Symbols of dividing to Footholds of cooperation</i>, coming close to the EU system through the <i>Common European Economic Space</i>.<br>Economy and social life in Kaliningrad are sensitive to external factors—EU and NATO expansion to the east. There is a need for favorable international relations and a stable legal and institutional environment of the market, which are based on the balance of various economic and political factors. Without cooperation of neighbouring countries, Kaliningrad is not an advantageous region as a Russian gateway to Europe. But its unique geographical location—<i>enclave</i> within the enlarged EU—offers opportunities for more cooperation and more prosperity for the people there. It could be able to play the role as a <i>pilot region</i>, where the EU and Russia discuss issues affecting common interests and work together to realize cooperation experimentally. Now the EU and Russia are <i>Ever Closer partners in a Wider Europe</i>.<br>The <i>Northern Dimension</i> aims to intensify cross border cooperation between the EU and Northeast regions of Russia, creating security and stability and addressing the problems related to uneven development in the region. And its concept might be applied to the cooperation with European CIS (Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova) in the future. In the process of building <i>Europe with no dividing</i>, St. Petersburg could restore the traditional position—<i>a Russian window to Europe</i>—and Kaliningrad could play the role of its Satellite. The slogan—<i>Russia in Europe</i>—is an effective trademark for the Kaliningrad playing a major role in its closer ties with Europe.
- EU Studies in Japan
EU Studies in Japan 2004(24), 125-143,315, 2004
The European Union Studies Association-Japan