ソラマメ（Ｖｉｃｉａ ｆａｂａ Ｌ．）における耐雪性の品種間差異と生育特性 [in Japanese] Varietal Difference in Snow Tolerance and Growth Characteristics of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.). [in Japanese]
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ソラマメの在来種を含む41品種を用いて積雪条件が異なる2ヵ年にわたり, 越冬前の生育特性と雪害程度を調査し, 品種の耐雪性との関連について検討した.雪害による枯死葉面積率と枯死株率をもとに供試品種は耐雪性強, 中, 弱の3品種群に分類できた.耐雪性強品種群は新潟市近郊の在来種とその突然変異品種の2品種, 耐雪性中品種群は原産地や育成地が西日本中心に分布する35品種, 耐雪性弱品種群は海外から導入された品種および鹿児島県の在来種の4品種であった.それぞれの品種群は原産地や育成地に共通性が認められ, 品種の耐雪性と育成環境との間に関連が示唆された.越冬前の生育特性と品種の耐雪性との間には密接な関係が認められた.耐雪性弱品種は花芽分化の時期が早く分化葉位が低いために越冬前に花芽の顕著な発育が認められたことから春播き型の品種であると考えられる.一方, 耐雪性強品種群は花芽分化の時期が遅く, 越冬前の花芽の発育ステージは初期段階であった.また耐雪性に関わる形態的特徴として, 耐雪性の強い品種は越冬前の草丈, 節間長, 茎葉生重が小さく, 茎葉乾物率が高い特性をもっていた.
The relationship between snow tolerance and growth characteristics in early winter was investigated using 41 varieties of broad bean. Varietal differences in snow tolerance were detected after 36 and 61 days of continuous snow cover. After 61 days of snow cover, only 2 varieties survived and 39 varieties were injured seriously. After 36 days of snow cover, 4 varieties were injured seriously but 37 varieties survived. The 41 varieties examined were classified into 3 groups based on their snow tolerance; hardy, intermediate and susceptible. To breed a snow tolerant variety, varieties in each group were bred under similar environmental condition. Several significant correlations were recognized between the degree of snow injury and some growth characteristics in early winter. The hardy varieties had a short plant length, light fresh and dry weights of foliage, high percentage of dry weight of foliage and late floral differentiation, whereas the susceptible varieties showed opposite tendencies. In the susceptible group, floral differentiation started in the early stage of growth and the floral buds developed markaedly before winter, suggesting that the susceptible varieties belong to spring type of broad bean. These results show that the varietal difference in snow tolerance of broad bean is closely correlated with the development of floral differentiation and morphological characters at early winter.
- Japanese Journal of Crop Science
Japanese Journal of Crop Science 67(4), 505-509, 1998
CROP SCIENCE SOCIETY OF JAPAN