Role of the Placenta in Adverse Perinatal Outcomes among HIV-1 Seropositive Women

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Author(s)

    • Ackerman IV William
    • Laboratory of Perinatal Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University
    • J. Kwiek Jesse
    • The Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, The Center for Microbial Interface Biology, and Public Health Preparedness for Infectious Diseases Program, The Ohio State University

Abstract

Women seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are at an increased risk for a number of adverse perinatal outcomes. Although efforts to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) remain a priority in resource-limited countries, HIV testing and treatment have led to steep declines in MTCT in well-resourced countries. Even so, HIV seropositive pregnant women in the United States continue to deliver a disproportionately high number of preterm and low birth weight infants. In this mini-review, we address the role of the placenta in such HIV-related perinatal sequelae. We posit that adverse perinatal outcomes may result from two mutually non-exclusive routes: (1) HIV infection of the placenta proper, potentially leading to impaired maternal-fetal exchange; and (2) infection of the maternal decidual microenvironment, possibly disrupting normal placental implantation and development. Further research into the relationship between HIV-1 infection and placental pathology may lead to the development of novel strategies to improve birth outcomes among HIV-1 seropositive parturients.<br>

Journal

  • Journal of Nippon Medical School

    Journal of Nippon Medical School 80(2), 90-94, 2013

    The Medical Association of Nippon Medical School

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130004147221
  • Text Lang
    ENG
  • ISSN
    1345-4676
  • Data Source
    J-STAGE 
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