森林放牧と牛の屠殺をめぐる文化の政治-現代ブータンの国立公園における環境政策と牧畜民- Cultural Politics of Forest Grazing and Cattle Slaughtering : Environment Policy and Pastoralists in a National Park in Bhutan

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Abstract

本論考では、ブータンの国立公園内の牧畜村で実施した現地調査をもとに、環境政策と森林放牧、牛の屠殺と仏教信仰をめぐって生起する価値の政治について考察する。森林放牧を環境破壊の原因とするグローバルな環境言説の影響の下、近年のブータンでは牧畜民による季節移動や森林放牧の習慣が「自然保護への脅威」として規制されつつある。森林局が森林への負荷を軽減する目的で畜牛の頭数削減を迫り、畜産局が定着型の酪農形態への転換を推進するなか、村民は「環境にやさしい生活」のために「牛を殺すこと」を余儀なくされている。政府がチベット仏教信仰に内在する自然観を根拠に環境保護を「ブータン人」の属性として位置づける一方で、個別の環境政策においては「よき仏教徒である」ことと「環境にやさしい」こととは乖離する様相を呈していく。本論は「自然環境保護」あるいは「環境にやさしい生活」に対する解釈の重層性を示すとともに、政府の描く理想の「ブータン人」像に対する人々からの多元的な問い直しの過程と、新たな自己像の再構築へ向けた営為とを描き出そうとするものである。

This paper describes cultural politics on the concept of “Environmental Conservation” in contemporary Bhutan through a case study of a pastoral village within a national park, where the practice of forest-based cattle grazing and migratory livestock farming has been restrained for the last few years by the government in the name of environmental conservation. On the one hand, the government has put restrictions on the people's forest resource use, and on the other, it has encouraged villagers to decrease the number of their cattle and transform their lifestyle from one centered on migratory livestock farming to a sedentary one. Since there is no efficient way to reduce the number of cattle except through slaughter, the government policy implies that people will, albeit indirectly, be forced to send their cattle to the slaughterhouse. Currently the people of this pastoral village face the difficult situation of having to choose whether to be a better Buddhist by not killing cattle or a better environmentalist by sending their cattle to slaughter. In contemporary Bhutan, although the government has insisted that environmental ethics are intrinsically included in the thought of Mahayana Buddhism and cannot be separated, actual conservation policies do not allow them to be ideal Buddhists. This case study shows us the possibility of multiple interpretations of “environmental conservation”, and highlights the people's attempts to reevaluate and reconstitute their own self-portraits based on the government's ideal of “being a good Bhutanese citizen”, in which the country's Buddhist tradition and environmental concerns coexist.

Journal

  • Minamiajiakenkyu

    Minamiajiakenkyu 2008(20), 77-99, 2008

    JAPANESE ASSOCIATION FOR SOUTH ASIAN STUDIES

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