創られた「起業家」:日本における1990年代以降の起業家政策の検討  [in Japanese] The Imagined “Entrepreneur”:An Analysis of Japanese Entrepreneurship Policy Since the Late 1990s  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿は, 1990年代後半以降に政府や経済界から提出された「起業」や「起業家」像の検討を通して, 日本の社会秩序が「起業」や「起業家」をどう規定し, 受け入れてきたのかを分析するものである.<br>バブル経済が崩壊し日本型経営が見直しを迫られる中で, 「起業家」は日本経済の救世主として政財界から希求されたものだった. しかし, 一連の起業を推奨する言説にはあるアイロニーがある. それは, 自由意志と自己責任を強調し, 一人ひとりが独立自尊の精神を持った起業家になれと勧めるにもかかわらず, それが語られるコンテクストは必ず「日本経済の再生」や「わが国の活性化」などという国家的なものであったという点である. 自分の利益を追求し, 自分で自分の成功を規定するような者は「起業家」と呼ばれず, 「起業家」とはあくまでも「日本経済に貢献」する「経済の起爆剤」でなければならないのである. さらに, 若年雇用問題が社会問題化すると, 起業には雇用創出の役割までが期待されるようになった.<br>1999年の中小企業基本法の改正まで, 日本の中小企業政策は「二重構造」論の強い影響下, 中小企業の「近代化」や大企業との「格差是正」を目指すという社会政策的側面が強かった. その意味で, 起業家に自己責任と日本経済への貢献を同時に要求する理念は, 1990年代後半以降の時代特殊的なものと言える.

Through a review of the discourses and images presented by the Japanese government and business community, this paper explores how the concepts of “small business” and “entrepreneur” have been defined in Japanese society since the late 1990s.<br>This paper uncovers the irony in the construction of entrepreneurship in the era of post-Japanese-style management following the collapse of the Bubble Economy, during which political and business establishments encouraged the entrepreneur to save the Japanese economy. Despite related-policy blueprints' emphasis on free will and self-responsibility, calling for entrepreneurs to assume a self-sustaining attitude, these statements are always placed in the context of national interest (e.g., “revival of the Japanese economy” or “revitalizing the national economy”). In policy blueprints, an entrepreneur is never constructed as someone who pursues his/her own private profit or who sets his/her own goals. Instead, an entrepreneur is framed as someone who should “contribute to the Japanese economy” and “prime the Japanese economy.” As a sub-plot, small businesses have been supported, especially after youth unemployment surfaced as a social problem, as an effective way to create new jobs.<br>Historically, supporting small- and medium-sized companies has been an element of social policy in Japan, the goal being to prompt SMEs to modernize and to reduce the disparity between SMEs and large companies. Such aims were influenced by the so-called double structure theory until the revision of the Small and Medium Enterprises Basic Act in 1999. Therefore, the discourse that calls for entrepreneurs to take full responsibility over themselves to save the Japanese economy is particular to the late 1990s and 2000s.

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 63(3), 376-390, 2012

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130004549943
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • Data Source
    J-STAGE 
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