「契約における非契約的要素」再考:有機的連帯における契約法の積極的役割  [in Japanese] Non-Contractual Element in Contract Revisited:Durkheimian Understanding on Regulatory Roles of Contract Law in Contractual Relationships  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

『社会分業論』にてデュルケムは有機的連帯という社会統合の概念を提示している. この連帯概念の特徴は, 集合意識に基づく機械的連帯とは異なり, 社会的分化を許容している点に存する. しかし社会統合の概念である以上, 有機的連帯は個々人の自己利益にのみ基づく経済的な関係から区別されるべきであり, その基礎となる契約関係も当事者間の合意に還元はできない性質を持っている. 「契約における非契約的要素」とは, 経済学的な契約観に対するデュルケムの批判をパーソンズが定式化したものである.<br>しかし「契約における非契約的要素」とは具体的に何を指しているのか. 有機的連帯に固有の統合メカニズムの特定に重要となる論点であるにもかかわらず, デュルケム研究者の間でも見解が分かれている. 集合意識を指しているのか, 人格崇拝なのか, 社会の非合理的基礎なのか, それとも社会に由来する強制力を意味しているのか. 本稿は「契約における非契約要素」とは契約法である, との解釈を提示する.<br>契約法の役割は, 契約当事者間の権利義務を定め, 有機的連帯の安定を可能にする, という法の執行のみに留まらない. 契約関係における調和の維持という積極的な役割も契約法は担っている. 合意が契約として法的保護を受けるためには, 法により定められた条件を満たす必要があるが, デュルケムはこの条件を調和的な協働が維持されるための条件として理論的に読み替えるのである.

In <i>Division of Labour in Society</i>, Durkheim presented a concept of social integration as organic solidarity. In contrast to a community based on the <i>conscience collective</i>, this type of society gives room for the rise of social differentiation. As long as social integration remains intact as a whole, however, organic solidarity will not be the same as mere economic relationships among egoistic interests; a contractual relationship is not solely based on an agreement between parties. Talcott Parsons, an influential exponent of Durkheim, restated this criticism against economic views on contract as “non-contractual element in contract.”<br>What constitutes a “non-contractual element in contract”? Though this point is crucial for specifying the integrative mechanisms typical of organic solidarity, Durkheimian scholars have not yet reached a common understanding. Does this term refer to the <i>conscience collective</i>, the cult of the individual, non-rational foundations of society, or coercive forces derived from a society? I have come to the conclusion that it is a law of contract.<br>The element distinguishing a contractual relationship from a mere economic one is that respective rights and obligations between parties are stipulated by law. If the law did not consolidate cooperative relations in division of labour, organic solidarity would not remain stable. However, the role of contract law is not primarily limited to enforcement. Contract law also performs the function of keeping contractual relations harmonious. Agreements between parties alone do not render contracts legally valid. If an agreement does not satisfy the conditions required by law, it forfeits a legal binding force. Contract law actively intervenes in the contract making process.<br>Why does an agreement that meets legal criteria endorse organic solidarity? This is the key to understanding Durkheimian theoretical insights into the law. Durkheim reasoned that requirements defined by statute are in place to achieve balanced cooperation. If an agreement is deemed insufficient for peaceful coordination, it loses legal protection. This is the active regulatory force of contract law.

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 63(3), 408-423, 2012

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130004549945
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00109823
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • NDL Article ID
    024220888
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-265
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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