散乱するモデルの中にたたずむ:東日本大震災における複数のリスク構造  [in Japanese] Various Patterns of Risk to Victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

社会的に弱い層が災害時により大きな被害を受けるという脆弱性のモデルは,東日本大震災においても妥当するのだろうか.この問いに答えるためには,まず津波災害と原発事故災害とを分けて考える必要がある.津波災害に関しては,高齢者と漁業従事者が多く居住する地域で特に被害は大きかったのかという問いについて,地域間比較の分析を通じて検証を試みる.その上で,モデルから外れた事例として岩手県陸前高田市に注目し,津波や仮設住宅の生活におけるリスクをどう回避してきたのか,その条件は何かということについて調査データをもとに分析する.次に,原発事故災害について検討する.その出発点は,被曝と避難に伴うリスクが高齢者と若者で異なるという事実である.だが,被曝リスクをゼロにすることにこだわる場合,そのリスク構造の差異を適切に扱えない上に,有効な政策的・実践的方向性も示せなくなる.以上を通じて,地域や時期,問題によって,特定の社会的カテゴリーが有する災害に対するリスクが多様な形をとることとその含意について論じる.

     Is a model of vulnerability to disaster, which is that vulnerable people tend to be affected more severely by a disaster, suitable for the great East Japan earthquake? To answer this question properly, we firstly have to distinguish the tsunami disaster and the disaster caused by an accident of nuclear power plant in Fukushima. Regarding the tsunami disaster, we explore a question whether areas where more elder people and fishery workers inhabit tend to have been damaged more severely, by analyzing data of local districts in affected areas. Next, we focus on a case of Rikuzen-takata in Iwate prefecture which seems to be an exceptional case of the model, and analyze how people have tried to avoid risks of the attack of tsunami and isolation in temporary housing and what its conditions are. Additionally, the paper turns to a discussion of risk of radiation exposure. The most important point of the issue is the fact that the young and the aged face different risks of diseases caused by radiation exposure and a refuse itself. However, if people take a viewpoint that any possibility of low level of radiation exposure should be avoided, they would fail to recognize the difference of risks to various vulnerable people properly and also mislead discussion about how to avoid risks and how to "redistribute" them. With the findings mentioned above, the paper insists that risks and damages to various types of vulnerable people are highly differentiated according to areas, phases and issues.

Journal

  • Sociological Theory and Methods

    Sociological Theory and Methods 28(2), 247-268, 2013

    Japanese Association For Mathematical Sociology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130004685185
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0913-1442
  • Data Source
    J-STAGE 
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