選択的中絶とフェミニズムの位相  [in Japanese] The Phase of Selective Abortion and Feminism  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

胎児を独立して検査できる出生前検査の出現により, 胎児の疾患や障害のため中絶する, いわゆる選択的中絶が問題として浮上している. 通常の中絶に対してフェミニストはその正当性を確保するために ‹自己決定› を主張してきたが, 優生思想への危機感から選択的中絶を ‹自己決定› としては認めず, 中絶の特異点と措定した.<br>本稿では, 筆者がこれまでに行ったフィールド調査から, 女性たちの出生前検査および選択的中絶の経験を記述し, 選択的中絶と日本のフェミニズム理論との関連を考察した. その結果, フィールドでの選択的中絶の問題点は望んだ妊娠にもかかわらず中絶への回路が開かれてしまうというところにあった. その際, 自分のためというより胎児のため, という母性的な言説が使われており, それは出生前検査の受検の際にも使われていた. 超音波検査によって胎児への愛情が喚起されたり, 思わぬアクシデントがある中で, その選択は状況依存的な決定にならざるをえない. そうした決定を支える, ‹自己決定› 概念の創出がフェミニズムにもとめられる. ここでいう ‹自己決定› は, 自分で決めたからという理由で無条件に選択的中絶を正当化するものではなく, 母性に収奪されがちな文化と優生思想に対する批判の双方を捉えながら, 可変で多様な「自己」に対応可能な概念である.

Since the start of prenatal testing to inspect a fetus independently, selective abortion, which refers to aborting a fetus for fetal abnormality, has posed a problem. So that feminists might secure justification for the abortion, in general, they asserted "self-determination." But from a sense of crisis to eugenics, selective abortion was not accepted as self-determination; instead, it was regarded as a singular point within the abortion itself.<br>From the field survey performed so far, in this paper, the author described the experience of prenatal testing and selective abortion and investigated the relationship between selective abortion and feminist theory in Japan. The results suggest that selective abortion is problematic because prenatal testing is sometimes a precursor to abortion, even for a desired pregnancy. Maternalistic discourse, such as "it's more for the sake of the child than for myself," was often used to explain the selective abortion as well as the women's choice to undergo prenatal testing.<br>The selection must be dependent on the situation because of the strong attachment to the fetus through ultrasound imaging and unexpected happenings throughout the pregnancy term. Thus, the creation of the new concept of self-determination within feminist discourse is called for. Self-determination does not justify selective abortion unconditionally for women having decided by themselves. Rather, self-determination should denote a response to changeable and various "selves," with a critical perspective toward both sides of the maternalistic culture and eugenic ideology.

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 64(1), 91-108, 2013

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130004688311
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • Data Source
    J-STAGE 
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