貧困・社会的排除の地域的顕現:再不安定化する都市部落  [in Japanese] Local Manifestation of Poverty and Social Exclusion:Destabilization of Life among the Urban <i>Buraku</i>  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿の目的は, 大阪市の被差別部落A地区で実施した調査に基づき, この地域の再不安定化プロセスとその要因について検討することを通して, 貧困や社会的排除現象の解明と対応策の構想に, 地域という変数が欠かせないことを示すことである.<br>貧困と社会的排除が極端に集中していたA地区の状況は, 長期にわたる公的な社会的包摂事業によって大きく改善した. しかし, 事業終結後, アファーマティブ・アクションとしての公務員就労ルートが廃止され, その時期が日本社会の雇用不安定化の時期と重なっていたこともあり, 若者の就業状態はふたたび不安定化した. 安定層の地区外流出と不安定層の流入という貧困のポンプ現象がこうした傾向に拍車をかけた.<br>貧困層の集積は, それ自体がさらなる機会の制約となる. 被差別部落では, かねてから貧困が地域的に集積していたことによる履歴効果, そして当事者運動が引き出した公的事業の意図せざる帰結として, 個的な生活向上・維持戦略の定着を阻む生活文化が存在し, 達成モデルも限定されてきた. 地区内の「なんとかやり過ごす」ネットワークは事業終結と担い手の流出によりその機能を弱体化させている. 貧困・社会的排除は地域的に集積し, 地域的に集積したそれらはマクロな社会変動や政策, さらには階層・階級文化などには回収されない固有の機制として, 貧困のさらなる集積や深化をもたらしていく.

This thesis aims to indicate local communities as variables that are fundamental to figuring out phenomena of poverty and social exclusion and shaping the countermeasures through an examination of the process of reproductive destabilization and its causes, based on the study that we conducted in “A” area, of a discriminated community of people called <i>Buraku</i> in Osaka.<br>The situation in “A” area—one of extreme poverty and social exclusion—was greatly improved by a social inclusion project conducted on a long-term basis. However, once the project ended, affirmative action, in the form of assistance provided to the <i>Burakumin</i> (a Japanese minority group) in gaining employment as public employees, was abolished. At the time, the employment situation in Japanese society was unstable. These circumstances reduced the employment opportunities for young <i>Burakumin</i>. The middle class moved outside the community and the lower class moved in. This tendency reinforced the accumulation of poverty.<br>The accumulation of poverty groups itself restricts life chances. Among the <i>Buraku</i>, the after-effects of the accumulation of a number of poor people in the community, and the unintended consequences of the project conducted by the “the <i>Buraku</i> Liberation Movement” led to a lifestyle which prevented the development of individual strategies for improving lives and restricted successful models. The function of strong ties in the community became weak because of the project end and the outflow of young people in the area. The accumulation in the area of poverty and social exclusion makes the poverty levels deeper and more concentrated and works as a specific mechanism, which cannot be explained in macro social changes and policies, or class culture.

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 62(4), 489-503, 2012

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130004830080
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00109823
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • NDL Article ID
    023686459
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-265
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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