東日本大震災と福島第一原子力発電所の事故が災害リスクの認知および原子力政策への態度に与えた影響  [in Japanese] The Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident on People's Perception of Disaster Risks and Attitudes Toward Nuclear Energy Policy  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

内閣府, 全国紙, NHK, 国立環境研究所, 日本原子力学会などによる世論調査の結果を基に, 福島第一原子力発電所事故発事故が, 人々の意識に与えた影響について, 震災以前と以降を比較したところ, 原発事故は, 災害リスク認知や原発事故への不安感および環境汚染意識を高め, 原子力政策に対する人々の意識を大きく変えた. 専門家と一般住民の原子力政策に対する認識のギャップは, 震災前以上に大きい.<br>JGSSデータに基づく分析では, 原子力への反対意識は, 女性で強く, 若年層の男性や自民党支持層で弱く, この点はチェルノブイリ事故後の結果と一致している. 原発から70kmの範囲に居住している場合には, 原発の近くに住んでいるほど原発事故が発生するリスクをより高く認知していた. また, 原子力政策に対する原発からの距離と地震発生のリスク認知には交互作用効果が存在しており, 地震発生のリスク認知が低い場合には原発近くに住む人ほど原子炉廃止への支持が少ないことが明らかとなった. 原発事故は, 人々の意識を変えただけではない. 日本では節電意識は以前から高かったが, 原発事故後, 電気をこまめに消す以上の, 消費電力を減らすさまざまな工夫を行い, 電力需要は2011年度には5.1%減少し, 12年度にはさらに1.0%減少した. 節電の工夫の頻度は, 原子力政策への態度と関連しており, 原子炉廃止層の8割が消費電力を減らす工夫に取り組んだ. 電力需要の減少は原子力政策の今後に対する人々の意思表明であろう.

Multiple nationwide opinion surveys, carried out by the government (cabinet office), major media (national newspapers and NHK), the National Institute for Environmental Studies, and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, have revealed that the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident have heightened people's perception of disaster risks, fear of nuclear accident, and recognition of pollution, and have changed public opinion on nuclear energy policy. The gap of opinion on nuclear energy policy between specialists and lay people has widened after the disaster.<br>The results of Japanese General Social Survey data show that the objection to the promotion of nuclear energy is strong among females, and weaker among young males and the supporters of the LDP. This is similar to the data collected after the Chernobyl accident. Among people who live in a 70km radius of nuclear plants, those who live nearer to plants tend to evaluate nuclear disaster risks higher. Distance from nuclear plants and the perception of earthquake risk interactively correlate with the opinion on nuclear issues: among people whose evaluation of earthquake risk is low, those who live nearer to the plants are more likely to object to the abolishment of nuclear plants. It is also found that the nuclear disaster has changed not only people's attitudes but also people's behavior. People have come to try to save electricity in addition to turning off electrical equipments frequently. It has led to the 5.1% reduction of electrical demands over the previous year in 2011, and 1.0% more in 2012. The level of commitment to energy saving is found to be correlated with opinion on nuclear issues: 80% of the proponents of nuclear reactor decommissioning have tried to reduce electrical consumption. The reduction of electrical demands has been people's manifestation towards the nuclear energy policy.

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 64(3), 420-438, 2013

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130004830132
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00109823
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • NDL Article ID
    025243576
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-265
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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