災害リスクの"包括的制御":災害パターナリズムに抗するために  [in Japanese] Holistic Approach to the Disaster Risks:To Withstand the Disaster Paternalism  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿の目的は, 宮城県の各被災地の人びとの営みから, 排除することのできない災害リスクを抱えながら生活を再構築していく技法に学ぶことで, 災害リスクへの適応実践のあり方を示すことにある.<br>今回の東日本大震災でとりわけ津波の被害が甚大であった現場で見えてきた災害との向き合い方の方向性は, 大きくは2つある. 1つは, 被害の大きかった場所から撤退したり, 津波による物理的損失を未然に防ぐことで日常生活に支障をきたさない状況を目指す方向性である. もう1つは, 生活をともにするコミュニティの維持・継続を目指した先に, 物理的なダメージの緩衝のみならず被災後も派生してくる生活困難や孤立, 精神的ダメージといった複合的な災害リスクを包括的に低減することを目指す方向性である. 後者の方向性のあり方を, 本稿では「災害リスクの包括的制御」と呼んでおきたい.<br>災害リスクと向き合うとき, 災害パターナリズムによる災害リスクへの対処法は, 結果としてリスクの締め出しと引き換えに生活弱者を生み出すのも致し方なしという社会的排除の性格を強く帯びる. それに対し, 本稿が提示するコミュニティに備わる災害リスクの包括的制御は, もっとも不利な人が生きていくための社会的セイフティネットの役割をもつ. 事後的にしか対処できない派生的な被災の実態に対して, 包括的制御アプローチは, 災害発生時のみならず災害後も居座り続ける複合的な災害リスクを縮減することに寄与していることを実証する.

This paper clarifies the adaptive practice to the disaster risk, by referring to several communities in coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture where they were severely suffered from the tsunami attack brought about by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Especially this research gives an attention to learn techniques which try to somehow coexist with, but not totally exclude, the disaster risk.<br>There are two directions in seeking the ways to deal with the disaster risks seen in the field of tsunami-damaged communities. One is the direction seeking to realise a situation that does not totally allow any physical loss or damage occurred by the tsunami which was just observed in the latest catastrophe by, for example, building a high seawalls or a withdrawal from the places where communities were originally placed. The other is a direction that aims to deal with catastrophic circumstances within community to reduce the disaster risk complex which lingers on for quite a while and produces difficulties in rebuilding survivours' life. This paper calls the latter as "holistic" approach by aiming at emphasizing the lingering nature of disaster risk and the difficulties to rebuild the life of survivours detached from their local land.<br>The disaster paternalism, which tries to persuade the victims to inhabit far away from the land attacked by the latest catastrophe, tends to perceive that it is unavoidable to carry out social exclusion of minorities or to bring about disparities within the communities as a result. On the other hand, community which accepts the disastrous situations holistically, play a role as a local safety net for the most disadvantaged and vulnerable community members. By taking a holistic approach, this paper shows that it contributes to reducing the disaster risk complex which continuously endangers sufferers even years after the earthquake.

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 64(3), 386-401, 2013

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130004830135
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00109823
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • NDL Article ID
    025243532
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-265
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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