熟成チーズの発達史論考─南ヨーロッパ・イタリア北部における事例を通じて─  [in Japanese] Historical development process of matured cheese─From the case study of northern Italy, South Europe─  [in Japanese]

Access this Article

Search this Article

Author(s)

Abstract

本研究は,熟成ハード系チーズ(パルミジャーノ・レッジャーノ)と熟成ソフト系チーズ(タレッジョ)の加工上の特徴を分析し,イタリア北部における熟成チーズの発達史を再構成することを目的とした.パルミジャーノ・レッジャーノの加工の特色は,生乳の脱脂,自然に混入してくる微生物を利用していること,一日静置させて乳酸菌を増やしたホエイを加え合わせる技術,カッティング後の加温による凝乳粒からのホエイ排出,加温後に凝乳を細かくカッティングする技術にあった.タレッジョはもともとは移牧民により冬の寒い間に一時的に低地でつくられるものであった.北イタリアでの熟成チーズの発達史は,基層に熟成ハード系チーズがあり,低地では塩が豊富に供給される背景のもとに熟成ハード系チーズの厚みが増し,後になって,アルプス山脈山麓の低地で湿度が高く保てる特殊な状況設定のもとに熟成ソフト系チーズが発達してきたと推論することができる.

The purpose of this study is 1) to understand the processing procedure of matured hard-type cheese (Parmigiano Reggiano) and matured soft-type cheese (Taleggio), and then analyze the characteristics of these cheese processing and the important factors on the those maturing, and 2) to reconstruct the historical development process of matured cheese in the northern Italy. The characteristics of Parmigiano Reggiano processing was the skimming from raw milk, the utilizing of natural microorganisms for processing, the adding of acidified whey in which lactic acid bacteria was increased by standing over a day into raw milk, the small cutting of curd as large as maze size, the extracting of whey from curd particles by warming, and the penetrating of salt into cheese by soaking it in salt water around 3 weeks. Taleggio was processed during only winter in the lowland of northern Italy by transhumant in past times. The soft-type cheese matured by the resolutive effect of fungi and/or yeasts was temporarily created during winter period under the specific condition possible to keep humidity high such as basement room or cave in the lowland. The historical development process of matured cheese in the northern Italy was reconstructed as matured hard-type cheese was firstly diffused over Europe and became the base on matured cheese in Europe, the thickness of matured hard-type cheese increased in the lowland along Po river under the enough supply of salt, and then mature soft-type cheese was created under the specific condition possible to keep humidity high in the lowland foothill of the Alps.

Journal

  • Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho

    Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho 86(1), 1-11, 2015

    Zootechnical Science Society of Japan

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130004935339
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00195188
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    journal article
  • ISSN
    1346-907X
  • NDL Article ID
    026186924
  • NDL Call No.
    Z18-348
  • Data Source
    NDL  IR  J-STAGE  JASI 
Page Top