モモ'清水白桃'の生理的落果に及ぼす果実へのジベレリン処理の影響  [in Japanese] Effects of Fruit Dipping in GA3 Solution on the Physiological Fruit Drop in 'Shimizu Hakuto' Peach  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

モモの生理的落果の抑制に対するジベレリン(GA)処理の有効性を検討するため,'清水白桃'を材料に果実へのGA処理(50 ppm溶液に浸漬)と種子への傷害処理(SI)を組み合わせた実験を行った.果実発育第1期の満開後30日(G30区)または50日(G50区)にGA処理したところ(実験1),G50区はG30区に比べて果実側径の肥大が旺盛となり,核割れ果の発生が多かった.G30区ではみられなかった胚の成長抑制と種皮の褐変が,G50区では認められた.しかしG30,G50区ともに生理的落果の発生を抑制した.無処理区,G30区およびG50区の果実に対し,発育第2期の満開後55日(SI55)および65日(SI65)にSI処理を行った(実験2).その結果,G30 + SI65区とG50 + SI55区では無処理区のSI処理と同様に急速な落果が認められたが,G30 + SI55区とG50 + SI65区では落果が遅れた.次に,果実発育第2期の満開後70日にSI処理した果実(SI70)に対し,その1日後(SI70 + G71)または3日後(SI70 + G73)にGA処理を行った(実験3).SI70区に比べてSI70 + G71区とSI70 + G73区の落果の発生は一時的に抑制され,その効果はSI70 + G73区のほうが高い傾向であった.また,満開後75日における活性型GA含量は,果肉ではSI70 + G71区よりSI70 + G73区で高かったのに対し,種子では両者の間に違いが認められなかった.このことから,種子が傷つけられると果肉のGA含量が低下し,落果抑制効果を持続しなくなると考えられた.以上より,モモ'清水白桃'において,果実発育第1期後半のGA処理は落果の発生抑制に有効であると考えられた.<br>

To investigate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA) on the suppression of physiological fruit drop, experimental GA treatment (dipping fruit in 50 ppm GA<sub>3</sub> aqueous solution) combined with seed injury (SI) treatment were conducted using ‘Shimizu Hakuto’ peach. In experimental GA treatment (Exp. 1) 30 (G30) and 50 (G50) days after full bloom (DAFB), enlargement of fruit thickness was enhanced and rates of split-pit fruit were higher in G50 compared with G30. Suppression of embryo growth and browning of the seed coat, which were not observed in G30, occurred in G50. However, fruit drop was decreased in both G30 and G50 compared with that in the control. Next, SI was performed at 55 (SI55) and 65 (SI65) DAFB for fruit treated by G30 or G50, and control (Exp. 2). Fruit drop was delayed in G30 + SI55 and G50 + SI65 but was not decreased in G30 + SI65 or G50 + SI55 compared to control + SI55 or control + SI65. Furthermore, SI was performed at 70 (SI70) DAFB, and GA treatments were performed one day (SI70 + G71) and three days (SI70 + G73) after SI treatment (Exp. 3). Fruit drop were temporarily decreased by both GA treatments and the effect was obviously higher in SI70 + G73 than in SI70 + G71. Activation of GA content in flesh was higher in SI70 + G73 than in SI70 + G71 but there was no difference in the GA content of seed between these two treatment groups. Results of Exp. 3 indicate that GA contents of flesh might rapidly disappear following SI treatment and retention of fruit on the tree was not maintained. Based on the above results, GA3 treatment during Stage 1 of fruit growth effectively decreases physiological fruit drop.<br>

Journal

  • Horticultural Research (Japan)

    Horticultural Research (Japan) 10(2), 209-215, 2011

    THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130004938703
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11608561
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    journal article
  • ISSN
    1347-2658
  • Data Source
    J-STAGE  JASI 
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