歴史的視座から見たアメリカの安全保障文化:ユダヤ＝キリスト教的伝統・共和主義・自由主義 A Historical Perspective on United States Security Culture: The Judeo-Christian Tradition, Republicanism, and Liberalism
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The United States has always had a unique attitude about its national security. This attitude is reflected in its isolationist tradition, the massive building of nuclear arms during the Cold War, and its eagerness to retain its military strength as the only superpower after the Cold War. This essay depicts the contours of United States security culture from a historical perspective utilizing recent studies on American foreign policy by diplomatic historians. In examining the security culture of the United States, the essay focuses upon three distinct characteristics of American political culture: the Judeo-Christian tradition, republicanism, and liberalism.<br>The United States is one of the most religiously observant industrially advanced nations and the Judeo-Christian tradition has influenced American security policy as illustrated in the concepts of “city upon a hill” and “Manifest Destiny.” Its anti-communist crusade during the Cold War, exemplified in John Foster Dulles's diplomacy, and the evangelical overtones of the war on terror also testify to its strong influence upon American security policy. On the other hand, the Jeremiad, typically detected in the writings of George Kennan, has urged American people to reflect upon the shortcomings of their security policy.<br>Republicanism is a secular heir to the Jeremiad, for its fear of “corruption” and its emphasis upon the importance “virtue” has also demanded people to contemplate the possible fall of the republic. Republicanism had a great impact upon the war for American independence and the War of 1812. The reason why American people endorsed territorial expansion in the first half of the nineteenth century is that the massive land seemed to ensure that they would remain as yeoman farmers who had civic virtue. By World War I, republicanism had been replaced by liberalism, which had been on the rise since the War of 1812, as the main current of political thought in the United States. As shown in the antiwar movement during the Vietnam War, however, a republicanism that is averse to overseas empire-building still remains as an undercurrent of American political thought. <br>Liberalism was reflected in the Wilsonian internationalism following WorldWar I. The League of Nations, a product of Woodrow Wilson's imagination, was a concrete example of liberal internationalism. The “containment” of the Soviet Union after World War II was another. Bill Clinton's “engagement and enlargement” policy that promoted democratization of the former communist countries and the Third World was also an example of Wilsonianism. Even war with Iraq with the goal of democratizing the Middle East can be seen as a legacy of Wilsonianism.<br>Thus the Judeo-Christian tradition, republicanism, and liberalism have been important factors in United States security culture from the time of its founding to the present.
- International Relations
International Relations 2012(167), 167_14-26, 2012
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