バングラデシュにおける環境保全政策の実践と村落政治の動態:―ハカルキ・ハオールにおける環境資源の文化の政治を事例として―  [in Japanese] Implementation of Environment Conservation Policy and Dynamism of Village Politics in Bangladesh:A Case Study of Cultural Politics Concerning Natural Resources in Hakaluki Haor  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

近年、南アジア地域においても広く実施されているコミュニティ・ベースの環境保全政策の研究においては、コミュニティを基盤とすることで起こる権力の再生産や、その結果としての資源の不平等な分配が問題として指摘されてきた。その一方で、地方への権限委譲を伴うこの政策を通して、地域社会に新たな政治実践が展開していることも指摘されている。<br>本研究では、バングラデシュにおける環境保全政策の実践を通して展開する村落社会における政治実践の動態的プロセスに注目し、議論される問題、あるいは争われる資源によって資源管理の参加者たちの対立軸や連携の在り方が変わっていくプロセスを描き出した。そうすることで、政策実践やその研究分析において社会的カテゴリーをアプリオリに設定することの問題、あるいはそれによって覆い隠される多様な政治実践の在り方を看過してしまうことを示唆した。

Recent studies on contemporary community-based natural resources management demonstrate that the policies which intend to restructure the resource management regime or redistribution system actually facilitate the reproduction of power relationships in the community and protract inequality in resource redistribution. On other hand, some studies argue that the policies create political arenas for struggle over resources and sometimes enable disadvantaged people to claim their rights to productive resources. <br>In this paper, I describe the process of Participatory Action Plan Development and formation of Village Conservation Groups. First of all, I show how fishermen claim to implement the principle of fishery law which is “the right to water bodies is to be given to people having fishing gears” in the context of environment conservation. On the one hand, fishermen who are disadvantaged in their communities due to lack of capital lay claims that businessmen who utilize large nets with organized waged labor exploit water resources unsustainably; on the other hand, legitimize small scale fishermen to be entitled the right to access to the water bodies by insisting that only “people having fishing gears” know sustainable use of water resources; thus, the lease to water bodies should be given to fishermen who have fishing gear. After confrontation and collaboration with businessmen, NGO staff, village leaders, large fishermen and small fishermen, the participants of the project have come up with an idea of equally allocating membership of Village Conservation Group to the lineage groups in the village so that the people can have access to the resources provided by the project through representatives of their lineages. <br>Focusing on the dynamism of village politics in the process of natural resource management project in Bangladesh, I argue that people with different interests compete with each other over natural resources to meet their needs. I also indicate that the dynamic process of confrontation and collaboration among different actors implies a priori categories in the policies of community-based natural resource management and an analysis of the target communities disguises the potentiality of political actions by the people.

Journal

  • Minamiajiakenkyu

    Minamiajiakenkyu 2009(21), 30-59, 2009

    JAPANESE ASSOCIATION FOR SOUTH ASIAN STUDIES

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130004967287
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10241576
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0915-5643
  • NDL Article ID
    10789220
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZG71(歴史・地理--アジア・アフリカ)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-3344
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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