新しいコミュニティ祭礼の出現:―ラージャスターン農村におけるラームデーヴ信仰と巡礼―  [in Japanese] Emergence of the New Community Festival in a Rajasthan Village:The Ramdev Cult and Pilgrimage to Ramdeora  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿では、ラージャスターン農村における祭礼の変容について論じる。近年、村落で人気のあるラームデーヴラー巡礼をとりあげ、なぜ巡礼が村人の関心を集めるようになったのか、また他の聖地ではなく、聖者ラームデーヴの廟を目的地にすることの意味はなにか、という2点について考察する。第一に、村落における「伝統的」社会構造が崩れ、古い秩序を体現するホーリー祭が否定される一方、新しい年中祭礼として巡礼が出現したことを述べる。次に、ラームデーヴ信仰の特性について分析し、ラームデーヴがもつハイブリッド性が宗教・カースト・階級・ジェンダーを越えて、異なる人々を包摂する力をもつことを述べる。最後に、ホーリー祭とラームデーヴラー巡礼を比較する。巡礼はホーリー祭と同様に、非日常空間において人々が根源的つながりを体験する機会になっており、祭りを通して「コミュニティ」を創出する機能をもつ。しかし、両者が体現する「コミュニティ」の構造は異なる。ホーリー祭ではヒエラルキーが顕在化するのに対し、巡礼では複数の読みが可能な開かれた関係性と異なる人々をつなぐ結節点が示される。

This paper discusses recent changes in village festivals based on fieldwork conducted in a Rajasthan village. I focus on village festivals, specifically on those which are collective, because they are explicitly intended to benefit the whole village, even if some villagers do not actually participate. Nowadays a pilgrimage to the shrine of a local saint named Ramdev has become quite popular among the village people, while the traditional village festival is in decline. Every year a group of pilgrims is voluntarily formed and they go on foot to his shrine in Ramdeora, which is 350 kilometres away from the village. Why does the pilgrimage to Ramdeora attract so many more people from the village than ten years ago? <br>First, I describe the process how whereby the traditional festival goes into decline and the pilgrimage flourishes as a new annual festival. Then, I consider specific character of the Ramdev cult and argue that the hybrid nature of the saint Ramdev, who is traditionally a god of Hindu outcastes and Muslims, and is presently involved in egalitarian Hindu Bhakti sects, gives him power to encompass a large number of people regardless of their creed, caste, class and gender. Finally, comparing the traditional village festival and the pilgrimage to Ramdeora, I conclude that the former has the same function as the latter to unite the village people and to create a "community", but the structure of the community experienced through participating in the pilgrimage is totally different from that experienced in the village festival. Decentralized social relationships and the nexus uniting different people are articulated in the former, while the hierarchical order and centralized power structure are embodied in the latter.

Journal

  • Minamiajiakenkyu

    Minamiajiakenkyu 2009(21), 60-86, 2009

    JAPANESE ASSOCIATION FOR SOUTH ASIAN STUDIES

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130004967288
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10241576
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0915-5643
  • NDL Article ID
    10789247
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZG71(歴史・地理--アジア・アフリカ)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-3344
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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