相互行為における手話発話を記述するためのアノテーション手法および文字化手法の提案 Proposal of new annotation and transcription scheme for signed utterances in interaction
In this paper, we propose annotation and transcription scheme for sign-language utterances “in interactions” and present several analyses of actual cases using this scheme. Previous studies have developed several transcription schemes, most of which have focused on transcribing the linguistic structure of sign-language words or utterances. The earliest scheme was the American Sign Language writing system developed by Stokoe (1960). Transcription schemes developed subsequently include HamNoSys (Prillwitz et al. 1987; Hanke 2004), sIGNDEX (Ichikawa 2001; Hara et al. 2007), and SignWriting (Sutton 1981, 1984). They focus on accurately transcribing each sign, including non-manual signals. However, these aroaches present difficulties in accurately transcribing interactions for the following reasons: (1) they cannot transcribe the start and end points of utterances; (2) they cannot transcribe the shifts and timing of multimodal components; and (3) they cannot transcribe hesitation or the sudden cutting off of an utterance, which often occur in natural conversation. In short, the purpose of these schemes is to reproduce signs that are too specialized for preformatted words and utterances. To discuss sign-language interaction, we must develop another transcription scheme that, like conversation analysis transcription, focuses on accurately presenting utterances in interactions. To this end, we developed a new alied transcription scheme based on the concept of gesture unit (Kendon 1984, 2004; Kita et al. 1998; McNeill 1992, 2005). This scheme reflects the difference between one-handed and two-handed signing, identifies the co-occurrence of actions, and reflects the continuity and change of actions. It thus reflects interactions produced through sign language. Results of case analyses show that signed utterances were composed carefully, and that signers were sensitive to them. We hope that this scheme will lead to renewed and cogent discussion about sign-language interaction.
手話学研究 22(0), 37-63, 2013