グローバルなケアの供給体制と家族 [in Japanese] Global Care Supply System and Family [in Japanese]
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ケアの求心力は人の国際移動を大きく促進した. 1つは香港, シンガポール, 台湾に存在する70万人をはじめとする家事労働者にみられ, 家事の補填のために雇用される途上国の女性である. 労働市場における非競合性, 雇用主にとっての「利便性」もあり経済成長や高齢化を背景として家事市場は拡大した. 外国からの豊富な労働供給を背景に市場は安定したが, 家事労働をめぐる階層化, 性役割分業の固定化を伴った. 次第に高齢化を背景とするケア需要が増大した. 各種補助金や税控除, 老親扶養法など「家族化政策」と連動し家事市場はさらに拡大したが, ケアの社会化は困難となった. 家族主義の問題点は家族形成を前提とするが, 日本, 韓国, 台湾など先進国における高齢者, 障害者などによるケア確保が一義的な国際結婚が増大した. 少子化や家族危機の言説と絡まり, 国際結婚は社会統合・多文化政策のきっかけとなった. 良き家族の一員としての統合は, 伝統回帰型かジェンダー平等型かという点で課題を抱えるが日本を除き政権にかかわらず推進されている. しかし, これらの移動は家事労働者の労働者性の担保, 婚姻過程の経済取引化などは結婚移民の脆弱性の原因となっている. 送り出しに伴う家族構成員の移動と欠如, 受け入れ側の家事労働者の家族接合, いずれにせよ従来とは異なるケアの供給体制であり, 近代家族自体が相対化されるものである.
The demand for care has facilitated international movement of persons. First is foreign domestic workers observed such as in Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong which employs 700,000 domestic workers. Foreign domestic workers are from nearby developing countries to supplement domestic work. The demand was further accelerated by economic growth and increasing demand for elderly care due to ageing in receiving countries. The characteristics of segmented labor market from other labor market composed of local workers, "convenience" for employers due to domestic workers' flexibility and abundance of labor supply enabled stable labor market even with the constant growth of labor demand. However, this in turns made it difficult to decommodify/defamilialize family care. The familialism of care presupposes producing welfare within family. However, the increment of nonmarriage especially in the rural area, among elderly, the disabled and among lower income started to choose cross border marriage. This is also to produce family care by marriage. However, receiving government started to link between lower fertility, "the crisis of family" and cross border marriage, which is the start of multicultural policy especially in Taiwan and Korea. Through integration policy, marriage migrants are given citizenship on condition of forming "good family". However, the notion of integration into good family has a range of meaning between gender equality and traditionally conservative and patriarchal ones. The active integration policy is succeeded even after political regime change except Japan, which does not enact basic law regardless of ruling party. However, the legitimacy security of care through the two major international movement of persons, the policy covers the vulnerability of foreign domestic worker without application of labor laws and covers vulnerability of marriage migrants often brought by brokers through cash transaction which is the cause of docility of marriage migrants.
- Japanese Sociological Review
Japanese Sociological Review 64(4), 625-648, 2013
The Japan Sociological Society