Dietary Patterns and Serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase in Japanese Men and Women
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<b>Background: </b>Although specific foods and nutrients have been examined as potential determinants of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations, the relationship between dietary patterns and GGT remains unknown. The present cross-sectional study aimed to determine relationships between dietary patterns and GGT concentrations, and the effects of lifestyle factors on GGT.<BR><b>Methods: </b>Relationships between dietary patterns and GGT were analyzed in 9803 Japanese individuals (3723 men and 6080 women age 40–69 years) without a history of liver diseases or elevated serum aminotransferase. We examined major dietary patterns by factor analysis of 46 items determined from a validated, short food frequency questionnaire.<BR><b>Results: </b>We defined dietary patterns as healthy, Western, seafood, bread, and dessert. The healthy pattern was inversely related to GGT in men (odds ratio [OR] for highest vs lowest quartile, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57–0.92; <i>P</i> < 0.01 for trend) and women (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66–1.0; <i>P</i> = 0.05 for trend), whereas the seafood pattern was positively related to GGT in men (OR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01–1.61; <i>P</i> = 0.03 for trend) and women (OR 1.21; 95% CI, 0.98–1.49; <i>P</i> = 0.05 for trend). Male-specific inverse associations with GGT were found for bread and dessert patterns (OR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50–0.80 and OR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.41–0.68, respectively; <i>P</i> < 0.01 for both trends). Seafood or bread patterns and alcohol consumption significantly interacted with GGT in men (<i>P</i> = 0.03 and <0.01 for interaction, respectively) and between the dessert pattern and body mass index or smoking habit in women (<i>P</i> = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively, for interaction).<BR><b>Conclusions: </b>Dietary patterns may be important determinants of GGT, and their possible clinical implications warrant further investigation.
- Journal of Epidemiology
Journal of Epidemiology 25(5), 378-386, 2015
Japan Epidemiological Association