フィールドにおける語り分析のための身体の空間陣形:科学コミュニケーターの展示物解説行動における立ち位置の分析 Spatial-Orientational Behavior for the Narrative in a Field:A Case Study on Science Communicators'Standing Position Employed to Display the Readi ness to Start Giving an Explanation of the Exhibit
This study addresses how environments for specialists reciting a narrative are estab-<br>lished when they (e.g., science communicators) need to give an explanation to non-<br> specialists (e.g., visitors). To analyze the videotaped data, we employed the notion<br> of spatial-orientation behavior (proposed by Adam Kendon). Spatial orientation com-<br>prises two formation types: F-formation and H-formation. The F-formation is when<br> the participants stand in an O-space, and everyone has an equal right to speak. The<br> H-formation includes head position as a factor of the study; where, a single participant<br> faces the rest of the participants that are typically lined-up in a row. The single par-<br>ticipant has more rights to speak than the rest. This study focuses on the H-formation<br> with the hypothesis that it is one way to signal readiness to start a narrative, i.e.,<br>establishes the environment to recite a narrative. Two case studies are provided in<br> this study. Case Study I gives an example of the H-formation, wherein the specialist<br> exerts a privileged right to talk to the novices. Case Study II illustrates an example<br> of the F-formation, with the specialist ending up with starting the narrative to the<br> novices, which acts as an excuse, as the specialist does not have the privileged right to<br> talk to the novices. For one thing, the reciting of the narrative in this example only<br> started as a response to a question from one of the novices. Additionally, the narrative<br> including with the contraction structures by gestures giving novice the chance to notice<br> the answer for his/her question. The results demonstrate how the type of formation<br> relates to the construction and presentation of the specialist's narrative. The results of<br> the two analyses demonstrate that the formation consisted of the two types, and that<br> participants use H-formation as a resource for establishing the environment for reciting<br> the narrative.
認知科学 22(1), 53-68, 2015