社会を取り戻す人々:フランスにおける都市底辺層の反グローバリズム運動  [in Japanese] Reclaiming the Society::Urban Poor and Anti-Globalism Movement in France  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

新自由主義的な政策に基づく住宅など社会保障の市場化に抗して活動を開始した「DAL (住宅への権利運動)」を中心に, フランスの反グローバリズム運動を分析することが本稿の課題である. 社会保障の市場化は, 社会運動の古いテーマであった再分配の問題をふたたび表舞台に引き出した. 社会保障の市場化によって社会的排除を経験したのは, まず貧困層の移民家族であった. DALの担い手はフランスの旧植民地出身の移民一世が9割以上を占める. DALの運動は, グローバルな規模の構造的不平等を指摘し, 植民地出身者の毀損されたアイデンティティの承認と, 公正な分配を求める運動を連動させて展開する可能性があった. しかし実際には, 新自由主義的な政策が社会の領域をも市場原理で席巻していくことへの異議申し立てとして展開した. 市場経済至上主義に対して「万人にアクセス可能な公共性」を掲げたため, 運動はミドルクラスの支持を得て, 住宅への権利を保障する複数の重要な法律の制定が実現した. そこに植民地主義的な権力関係を問題にするアイデンティティの政治が入る余地はなく, また担い手の移民たちも生活の改善のために勤勉に働く1世で, 「普通の生活」の実現が運動参加の動機であった. 結果として反グローバリズム運動を新自由主義に適合的な行為者が担うという矛盾がみられ, また, 構造的な不平等の是正は実現しなかった.

Poverty, which appeared to be an old issue of the social movement came back again on the stage. It seemed to replace the identity politics. Since the beginning of 1990s, the social movements against the social exclusion has gained large support from public opinion in France. Especially a movement for the housing rights (Droit au Logement) mobilized many actors. Their strategy was the occupation of the vacant buildings owned by local government or global company. Majority of the participants of this movement were migrant workers and their families who came to France after the 1980s. They are incorporated in the urban precarious labor like construction, cleaning, security guard, and care work etc. The movement could have reclaimed justice of the redistribution based on the post-colonial claim: existing inequality has its roots in the colonial inequality. But the movement reclaimed only the housing rights for everyone without mentioning specificity of the migrants. This is because the movement was situated in the anti-globalism movements which stood up for the defense of public service. The housing is one of the symbols of the public services to be defended against the neo-liberal policy. Reclaiming the rights for everyone is easy to gain support from the middleclass which is vital for the success of the movement. The strategy of the movement was such a success that several legislations and policy which assured the housing rights for everybody have been adopted. But post-colonial claim which is necessary to change the structure of power relations was not included in the anti-globalism movements. Without reclaiming the recognition of discriminated identities of minority groups, the anti-globalism movement could not change the existing power relations.

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 65(2), 210-223, 2014

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005101032
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00109823
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • NDL Article ID
    025880438
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-265
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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