釧路市における自主防災組織の活動から見た津波避難の課題  [in Japanese] Problems of Tsunami Evacuation Viewed from Activities by Voluntary Organizations for Disaster Prevention in Kushiro City  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

東日本大震災(2011年)の後に修正された津波浸水の新想定によると,北海道東部太平洋岸に位置する釧路市では,約13万人が津波想定地域内に居住すると推計される。その値は釧路市の人口の約7割に達し,北海道内の市町村では最も多くなる。さらに釧路市の市街地は,海岸に面する上に河川と鉄道に囲まれており,津波避難に不利な条件にある。本研究では,自主防災組織の防災活動に注目することから,釧路市における津波避難の課題を解明することを目的とする。現地での聞き取り調査では,自主防災組織であり,複数の町内会にまたがる広域的な範囲で避難訓練を実施してきた連合防災推進協議会の活動を重視した。それ以外に,連合町内会,町内会,市役所への聞き取り調査も実施した。それらの資料を分析した結果,避難施設(学校,公共機関,避難マンション)までの距離と経路,自動車による交通渋滞,道路が凍結する場所と時期,地域住民の高齢化と住民同士の繋がりなどを考慮した避難訓練が有効であることが示された。一方,高齢化によって自主防災組織の担い手が不足していることや「津波撤退ルール」が住民に認識されていないことなどの課題も示された。今後,冬季の津波避難を想定した訓練を重ねることや,外気に晒されない避難施設の確保も必要である。

According to the new assumptions about tsunami inundation that were modified after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, it is estimated that 13 million people live in the likely tsunami inundation area in Kushiro, a city on the Pacific Ocean coast of eastern Hokkaido. This number, 70% of the cityʼs population, is the largest among the cities on Hokkaido. The urban center of Kushiro is also subject to adverse conditions for tsunami evacuation, as it faces the ocean, and is surrounded by rivers and railways. This study examines the problems of tsunami evacuation in Kushiro City, by analyzing the current state of disaster prevention activities carried out by voluntary organization for disaster prevention. The primary method of enquiry is analysis of quantitative data obtained from interviews with the United Councils for Promoting Disaster Prevention, the Neighborhood Associationsʼ Union, neighborhood associations, and City Hall. We paid particular attention to the activities of the United Councils for Promoting Disaster Prevention, which cover evacuation drills for multiple neighborhood associations. The results demonstrate that effective evacuation drills should take account of the distance from and route to evacuation facilities (such as schools, public buildings, and evacuation apartments), the impact of traffic congestion on travel by car, the time and place of any ice on the roads, the age profile of local residents, and any connections between residents. Several problems are apparent, such as the lack of the successors to community organization leaders, who are aging, and a lack of concern by residents about the"rules"of tsunami evacuation. In future, disaster drills must be carried out on the assumption of winter evacuation, and evacuation facilities that are not exposed to the open air must be acquired.

Journal

  • Geographical Studies

    Geographical Studies 90(1), 1-14, 2015

    The Hokkaido Geographical Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005102471
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1882-2118
  • Data Source
    J-STAGE 
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