災害/復興における家族と支援:—その制度設計と課題—  [in Japanese] Disaster and Recovery: Institutional Design for Families and Their Support  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

自然災害が頻発する日本においても,東日本大震災(2011年)の地震・津波,その後の原子力発電所事故の複合災害は社会に衝撃を与え,被災地において個人/家族/地域への影響は計りしれない.災害分野は個人/コミュニティを軸に構築されていて,“家族”は健全に機能し自己完結することが当然視され,その直接的な対象ではない.復興の側面においては災害発生日の住民票を基準とした「罹災証明世帯」と「世帯主」が支援の対象となり,世帯構成員への支援は既存する社会保障の枠組みの範疇に限られていて,世帯単位と個人単位という日本の制度設計の課題が浮き彫りになる.それは介護や育児のような特別な支援を必要としない,「問題のない家族」への支援がないことにかかわっていると考える.コミュニティ再構築/まちづくりが実践される中,家族カフェの創設など自由な「家族づくり」への取組みを検討する時期がきたのではないか.

Japan is a country highly prone to disasters. The effects on individuals, families, and communities of March 11th, 2011, a massive multiple disaster including an earthquake, tsunami, and a nuclear crisis, can barely be calculated. Individuals and communities are the main concern of disaster studies, it being expected that families will deal with their problems by themselves. In the recovery process, most governmental support for victims is provided on the day on which the disaster occurs and is based on Disaster Victim Certificate and its head of household, so direct victim support offered to a household member is very limited. That the suggestion of focusing on individuals does not come up when considering support for disaster victims is deeply related to how Japanese social security is based fundamentally on household units. It may be related to the lack of assistance for well-organized families managing without support for family care, such as that for the elderly and children. Now, however, is the time to assist in rebuilding the community using the concept of ‘machi-zukuri' and at the same time facilitate a liberal ‘family-zukuri' by establishing the ‘Family Cafe' in society.

Journal

  • Kazoku syakaigaku kenkyu

    Kazoku syakaigaku kenkyu 26(1), 27-44, 2014

    Japan Society of Family Sociology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005106943
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10092691
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0916-328X
  • NDL Article ID
    025562222
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-3173
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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