1910年代半ばから1930年代ニューヨーク市公立学校精神遅滞学級におけるカリキュラムの変容―社会適応への重点化― [in Japanese] Shaping the Curriculum of New York City Public School "Ungraded Classes" (1910-1930): A Historical Study of the Focus on Social Adjustment [in Japanese]
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The present study describes the curriculum of the New York City public school "ungraded classes" for "mentally retarded" or "defective" students from the mid-1910's to the 1930's, a period in which the focus was on the social adjustment of students with intellectual disabilities. Starting around 1915, classes for these pupils had the goal of integrating them into social and workplace community life. The curriculum included instruction on social customs that were considered essential for the students to have when living in the community after leaving the "ungraded classes". The ability to work was also considered desirable for them. Results of a life survey of students after graduation revealed that their activities had improved after the introduction of this educational program, and some of the graduates were capable of working. The criteria for children to be enrolled in this program were expanded to include chronic truants with a higher IQ than the original population, who were children whose IQ was lower than 50 but who were expected to be able to adjust to society. The class size was decreased in order to be able to meet the needs of each child more effectively. The curriculum included vocational training for children with mild mental retardation, training for individuals with other disabilities, "Center of Interest" learning which utilized community resources, and reading as a tool subject. Motor training and skill training, which began to be included before the mid-1910's, remain in the curriculum at the present time, and the concept of meeting individual children's needs has also been maintained within a focus on social adjustment.
- The Japanese Journal of Special Education
The Japanese Journal of Special Education 52(1), 25-38, 2014
The Japanese Association of Special Education