1910年代半ばから1930年代ニューヨーク市公立学校精神遅滞学級におけるカリキュラムの変容―社会適応への重点化―  [in Japanese] Shaping the Curriculum of New York City Public School "Ungraded Classes" (1910-1930): A Historical Study of the Focus on Social Adjustment  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿では、1910年代半ばから1930年代の社会適応を重視した時期におけるニューヨーク市公立学校固定式精神遅滞(欠陥)学級のカリキュラムの実態を明らかにした。当学級は、1910年代半ばから1930年代にかけて地域生活を教育目標とするカリキュラムを形成していった。当学級を出た後、地域で生活するために必要不可欠と考えられたのは適切な行動習慣であり、就労する力があることも望ましいとされた。教育実践や卒業後生活調査の中で精神薄弱児の行動が改善し、就労が可能な者がいることも明らかにされた。対象児は、従来より知能指数が高い行動問題のある怠惰児と社会適応が見込まれるIQ 50未満の精神遅滞児に拡大され、知能指数・精神年齢に行動問題を加味した学級編成がなされた。カリキュラムでは職業訓練の強化、性格教育の実施、地域資源を活用した「興味の中心」学習、道具教科としての読みが実施された。1910年代半ば以前からの運動機能訓練等は継続され、社会適応に傾注する中でも個々のニーズに応えるという理念を維持していた。

The present study describes the curriculum of the New York City public school "ungraded classes" for "mentally retarded" or "defective" students from the mid-1910's to the 1930's, a period in which the focus was on the social adjustment of students with intellectual disabilities. Starting around 1915, classes for these pupils had the goal of integrating them into social and workplace community life. The curriculum included instruction on social customs that were considered essential for the students to have when living in the community after leaving the "ungraded classes". The ability to work was also considered desirable for them. Results of a life survey of students after graduation revealed that their activities had improved after the introduction of this educational program, and some of the graduates were capable of working. The criteria for children to be enrolled in this program were expanded to include chronic truants with a higher IQ than the original population, who were children whose IQ was lower than 50 but who were expected to be able to adjust to society. The class size was decreased in order to be able to meet the needs of each child more effectively. The curriculum included vocational training for children with mild mental retardation, training for individuals with other disabilities, "Center of Interest" learning which utilized community resources, and reading as a tool subject. Motor training and skill training, which began to be included before the mid-1910's, remain in the curriculum at the present time, and the concept of meeting individual children's needs has also been maintained within a focus on social adjustment.

Journal

  • The Japanese Journal of Special Education

    The Japanese Journal of Special Education 52(1), 25-38, 2014

    The Japanese Association of Special Education

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005110544
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00172513
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0387-3374
  • NDL Article ID
    025796924
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-314
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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