高齢者の外出行動と社会的・余暇的活動における性差と地域差 JAGES プロジェクトから  [in Japanese] Gender and regional differences in going-out, social, and leisure activities among older adults Findings from the JAGES Project  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<b>目的</b> 生きがいや社会的活動参加の促進を通じた高齢者の健康づくりには性差や地域差への考慮が重要とされる。しかしこれらの活動における性差や地域差の現状は十分明らかとはいえない。本研究では高齢者の外出行動と社会的・余暇的活動の性差と地域差を検討した。<br/><b>方法</b> Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES)プロジェクトが2010年~2012年に実施した,全国31自治体の要介護認定非該当65歳以上男女への郵送自記式質問紙調査データから103,621人を分析対象とした。分析項目は,週 1 日以上の外出有無,就労有無,団体・会への参加有無および月 1 回以上の参加有無,友人・知人との交流有無および月 1 回以上の交流有無,趣味の有無を測定した。性,年齢階級(65歳以上75歳未満,75歳以上),および地域特性として都市度(大都市地域,都市的地域,郡部的地域)を用いた。年齢階級別の性差および地域差の分析にはカイ二乗検定を実施した。さらに実年齢や就学年数,抑うつ傾向等の影響を調整するロジスティック回帰分析を行った(有意水準 1%)。また趣味や参加する団体・会についてはその具体的内容を記述的に示した。<br/><b>結果</b> 年齢階級別の多変量解析の結果,男性は有意に週 1 回以上の外出や就労,趣味活動が多く,団体・会への参加や友人・知人との交流は少なかった。ほとんどの活動項目で都市度間に有意差が認められ,郡部的地域と比較して大都市地域では週 1 回以上外出のオッズ比が約2.3と高い一方,友人との交流のオッズ比は後期高齢者で約0.4,前期高齢者で約0.5であった。性や都市度に共通して趣味の会の加入は多い一方,前期高齢者では町内会,後期高齢者では老人クラブの都市度差が大きく,実施割合に30%程度の差がみられた。趣味についても同様に散歩・ジョギングや園芸は性や都市度によらず実施割合が高いが,パソコンや体操・太極拳は性差が大きく,作物の栽培は地域差が大きかった。<br/><b>結論</b> 本研究から,①外出行動や社会的・余暇的活動のほとんどに性差や都市度差が観察され,それらのパターンが活動の種類によって異なること,②参加する団体・会や趣味の内容には男女や都市度に共通するものと,性差や都市度差の大きいものがあることが明らかになった。以上の特徴を踏まえた高齢者の活動推進のための具体的手法開発が重要であることが示唆された。

<b>Objectives</b> Promoting social and leisure activity participation in older adults could be effective in preventing their health decline. However, gender or regional differences in those activities remain unclear despite the necessity of gender- or region-specific approaches to their promotion. This study examined gender and urban-rural differences in going-out, social, and leisure activities among community-dwelling older adults.<br/><b>Methods</b> Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). Those analyzed were 103,621 people aged 65 or older who were functionally independent and lived in one of 31 municipalities. A total of seven activity variables were assessed with weekly going out, engagement in paid work, monthly and any frequency of engagement in group activities, monthly and any frequency of contact with friends, and having hobbies. We additionally assessed the contents of the group activities and hobbies. Gender, age groups (young-old: 65–74; old-old: 75 and over), and region groups, which were categorized as rural, urban, or metropolitan, were assessed along with education, depression, and other covariates. A chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to examine the age group-stratified differences in the going-out, social, and leisure activities among gender and region groups (<i>P</i><.01).<br/><b>Results</b> Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that men were more likely to engage in weekly going out, paid work, and hobbies but less likely to engage in group activities and contact with friends, either monthly or at any frequency. Most activities were also found to differ significantly among the region groups. For instance, people in metropolitan areas were 2.3 times more likely to engage in weekly going out but were 0.4 (old-old group) or 0.5 times (young-old group) less likely to engage in contact with friends. Percentages of engagement in hobby- or sport-groups were over 20% in all gender and region groups; on the other hand, about 30% differences were found in the percentages of engagement in senior clubs or neighborhood associations between metropolitan and rural men. As for having hobbies, walking/jogging and gardening were popular across all gender and region groups, while the percentages of engagement in a variety of hobbies differed among gender and region groups.<br/><b>Conclusion</b> Our findings suggest 1) differences in the levels of social and leisure activities among gender and region groups and 2) both similarities and differences in the popular group activities or hobbies among gender and region groups. Activity promotion for older adults should be targeted considering these gender and region group characteristics.

Journal

  • Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi(JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH)

    Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi(JAPANESE JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH) 62(10), 596-608, 2015

    Japanese Society of Public Health

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130005111420
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00189323
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0546-1766
  • NDL Article ID
    026859786
  • NDL Call No.
    Z19-216
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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